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Article

Can I Trust This Location Estimate? Reproducibly Benchmarking the Methods of Dynamic Accuracy Estimation of Localization

Geneva School of Business Administration (DMML Group), HES-SO, 1227 Geneva, Switzerland
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Academic Editors: Joaquín Torres-Sospedra, Antoni Perez-Navarro and Raúl Montoliu
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031088
Received: 2 January 2022 / Revised: 22 January 2022 / Accepted: 24 January 2022 / Published: 30 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation)
Despite the great attention that the research community has paid to the creation of novel indoor positioning methods, a rather limited volume of works has focused on the confidence that Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) assign to the position estimates that they produce. The concept of estimating, dynamically, the accuracy of the position estimates provided by an IPS has been sporadically studied in the literature of the field. Recently, this concept has started being studied as well in the context of outdoor positioning systems of Internet of Things (IoT) based on Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWANs). What is problematic is that the consistent comparison of the proposed methods is quasi nonexistent: new methods rarely use previous ones as baselines; often, a small number of evaluation metrics are reported while different metrics are reported among different relevant publications, the use of open data is rare, and the publication of open code is absent. In this work, we present an open-source, reproducible benchmarking framework for evaluating and consistently comparing various methods of Dynamic Accuracy Estimation (DAE). This work reviews the relevant literature, presenting in a consistent terminology commonalities and differences and discussing baselines and evaluation metrics. Moreover, it evaluates multiple methods of DAE using open data, open code, and a rich set of relevant evaluation metrics. This is the first work aiming to establish the state of the art of methods of DAE determination in IPS and in LPWAN positioning systems, through an open, transparent, holistic, reproducible, and consistent evaluation of the methods proposed in the relevant literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: benchmarking; error estimation; accuracy estimation; localization; positioning; machine learning; fingerprinting; reproducibility; open data; open code benchmarking; error estimation; accuracy estimation; localization; positioning; machine learning; fingerprinting; reproducibility; open data; open code
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anagnostopoulos, G.G.; Kalousis, A. Can I Trust This Location Estimate? Reproducibly Benchmarking the Methods of Dynamic Accuracy Estimation of Localization. Sensors 2022, 22, 1088. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031088

AMA Style

Anagnostopoulos GG, Kalousis A. Can I Trust This Location Estimate? Reproducibly Benchmarking the Methods of Dynamic Accuracy Estimation of Localization. Sensors. 2022; 22(3):1088. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031088

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anagnostopoulos, Grigorios G., and Alexandros Kalousis. 2022. "Can I Trust This Location Estimate? Reproducibly Benchmarking the Methods of Dynamic Accuracy Estimation of Localization" Sensors 22, no. 3: 1088. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031088

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