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Article

Self-Sufficient Sensor Node Embedding 2D Visible Light Positioning through a Solar Cell Module

1
Department of Information Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 50019 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laura Belli, Luca Davoli, Marco Martalò and Gianluigi Ferrari
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5869; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155869
Received: 11 July 2022 / Revised: 2 August 2022 / Accepted: 3 August 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Enabling Technologies for Smart Cities: Challenges and Approaches)
Nowadays, indoor positioning (IP) is a relevant aspect in several scenarios within the Internet of Things (IoT) framework, e.g., Industry 4.0, Smart City and Smart Factory, in order to track, amongst others, the position of vehicles, people or goods. This paper presents the realization and testing of a low power sensor node equipped with long range wide area network (LoRaWAN) connectivity and providing 2D Visible Light Positioning (VLP) features. Three modulated LED (light emitting diodes) sources, the same as the ones commonly employed in indoor environments, are used. The localization feature is attained from the received light intensities performing optical channel estimation and lateration directly on the target to be localized, equipped with a low-power microcontroller. Moreover, the node exploits a solar cell, both as optical receiver and energy harvester, provisioning energy from the artificial lights used for positioning, thus realizing an innovative solution for self-sufficient indoor localization. The tests performed in a ~1 m2 area reveal accurate positioning results with error lower than 5 cm and energy self-sufficiency even in case of radio transmissions every 10 min, which are compliant with quasi-real time monitoring tasks. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor positioning; visible light positioning; photovoltaic; energy harvesting; low power; ultra-low power; IoT; LoRaWAN indoor positioning; visible light positioning; photovoltaic; energy harvesting; low power; ultra-low power; IoT; LoRaWAN
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cappelli, I.; Carli, F.; Fort, A.; Micheletti, F.; Vignoli, V.; Bruzzi, M. Self-Sufficient Sensor Node Embedding 2D Visible Light Positioning through a Solar Cell Module. Sensors 2022, 22, 5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155869

AMA Style

Cappelli I, Carli F, Fort A, Micheletti F, Vignoli V, Bruzzi M. Self-Sufficient Sensor Node Embedding 2D Visible Light Positioning through a Solar Cell Module. Sensors. 2022; 22(15):5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155869

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cappelli, Irene, Federico Carli, Ada Fort, Federico Micheletti, Valerio Vignoli, and Mara Bruzzi. 2022. "Self-Sufficient Sensor Node Embedding 2D Visible Light Positioning through a Solar Cell Module" Sensors 22, no. 15: 5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155869

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