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Article

Event-Related Potential-Based Brain–Computer Interface Using the Thai Vowels’ and Numerals’ Auditory Stimulus Pattern

1
School of Informatics, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
2
Informatics Innovative Center of Excellence, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicola Francesco Lopomo and Yvonne Tran
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5864; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155864 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 June 2022 / Revised: 1 August 2022 / Accepted: 4 August 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Computer Interfaces and Sensors)
Herein, we developed an auditory stimulus pattern for an event-related potential (ERP)-based brain–computer interface (BCI) system to improve control and communication in quadriplegia with visual impairment. Auditory stimulus paradigms for multicommand electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs and audio stimulus patterns were examined. With the proposed auditory stimulation, using the selected Thai vowel, similar to the English vowel, and Thai numeral sounds, as simple target recognition, we explored the ERPs’ response and classification efficiency from the suggested EEG channels. We also investigated the use of single and multi-loudspeakers for auditory stimuli. Four commands were created using the proposed paradigm. The experimental paradigm was designed to observe ERP responses and verify the proposed auditory stimulus pattern. The conventional classification method produced four commands using the proposed auditory stimulus pattern. The results established that the proposed auditory stimulation with 20 to 30 trials of stream stimuli could produce a prominent ERP response from Pz channels. The vowel stimuli could achieve higher accuracy than the proposed numeral stimuli for two auditory stimuli intervals (100 and 250 ms). Additionally, multi-loudspeaker patterns through vowel and numeral sound stimulation provided an accuracy greater than 85% of the average accuracy. Thus, the proposed auditory stimulation patterns can be implemented as a real-time BCI system to aid in the daily activities of quadratic patients with visual and tactile impairments. In future, practical use of the auditory ERP-based BCI system will be demonstrated and verified in an actual scenario. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain–computer interface; electroencephalography; event-related potential (ERP); auditory stimulation brain–computer interface; electroencephalography; event-related potential (ERP); auditory stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borirakarawin, M.; Punsawad, Y. Event-Related Potential-Based Brain–Computer Interface Using the Thai Vowels’ and Numerals’ Auditory Stimulus Pattern. Sensors 2022, 22, 5864. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155864

AMA Style

Borirakarawin M, Punsawad Y. Event-Related Potential-Based Brain–Computer Interface Using the Thai Vowels’ and Numerals’ Auditory Stimulus Pattern. Sensors. 2022; 22(15):5864. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155864

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borirakarawin, Manorot, and Yunyong Punsawad. 2022. "Event-Related Potential-Based Brain–Computer Interface Using the Thai Vowels’ and Numerals’ Auditory Stimulus Pattern" Sensors 22, no. 15: 5864. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155864

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