Accurate estimation of blood pressure (BP) waveforms is critical for ensuring the safety and proper care of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) and for intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Normal cuff-based BP measurements can only provide systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Alternatively, the BP waveform can be used to estimate a variety of other physiological parameters and provides additional information about the patient’s health. As a result, various techniques are being proposed for accurately estimating the BP waveforms. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the BP waveform, three methodologies (pressure-based, ultrasound-based, and deep-learning-based) used in noninvasive BP waveform estimation research and the feasibility of employing these strategies at home as well as in ICUs. Additionally, this article will discuss the physical concepts underlying both invasive and noninvasive BP waveform measurements. We will review historical BP waveform measurements, standard clinical procedures, and more recent innovations in noninvasive BP waveform monitoring. Although the technique has not been validated, it is expected that precise, noninvasive BP waveform estimation will be available in the near future due to its enormous potential.
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