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A Systematic Review of Urban Navigation Systems for Visually Impaired People

1
School of Computer Science, Technological University Dublin, D07EWV4 Dublin, Ireland
2
Faculty of Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aboelmagd Noureldin
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093103
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 25 April 2021 / Published: 29 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Blind and Visually impaired people (BVIP) face a range of practical difficulties when undertaking outdoor journeys as pedestrians. Over the past decade, a variety of assistive devices have been researched and developed to help BVIP navigate more safely and independently. In addition, research in overlapping domains are addressing the problem of automatic environment interpretation using computer vision and machine learning, particularly deep learning, approaches. Our aim in this article is to present a comprehensive review of research directly in, or relevant to, assistive outdoor navigation for BVIP. We breakdown the navigation area into a series of navigation phases and tasks. We then use this structure for our systematic review of research, analysing articles, methods, datasets and current limitations by task. We also provide an overview of commercial and non-commercial navigation applications targeted at BVIP. Our review contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a comprehensive, structured analysis of work in the domain, including the state of the art, and guidance on future directions. It will support both researchers and other stakeholders in the domain to establish an informed view of research progress. View Full-Text
Keywords: assistive systems; navigation systems; visually impaired people; smart cities; planning journeys; independent children navigation; obstacle avoidance; autonomous driving; robot navigation assistive systems; navigation systems; visually impaired people; smart cities; planning journeys; independent children navigation; obstacle avoidance; autonomous driving; robot navigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-taher, F.E.-z.; Taha, A.; Courtney, J.; Mckeever, S. A Systematic Review of Urban Navigation Systems for Visually Impaired People. Sensors 2021, 21, 3103. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093103

AMA Style

El-taher FE-z, Taha A, Courtney J, Mckeever S. A Systematic Review of Urban Navigation Systems for Visually Impaired People. Sensors. 2021; 21(9):3103. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093103

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-taher, Fatma El-zahraa, Ayman Taha, Jane Courtney, and Susan Mckeever. 2021. "A Systematic Review of Urban Navigation Systems for Visually Impaired People" Sensors 21, no. 9: 3103. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093103

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