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Open AccessArticle

On the Functional and Extra-Functional Properties of IMU Fusion Algorithms for Body-Worn Smart Sensors

1
Institute of Applied Microelectronics and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
2
Institute of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernanda Irrera
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082747
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
In this work, four sensor fusion algorithms for inertial measurement unit data to determine the orientation of a device are assessed regarding their usability in a hardware restricted environment such as body-worn sensor nodes. The assessment is done for both the functional and the extra-functional properties in the context of human operated devices. The four algorithms are implemented in three data formats: 32-bit floating-point, 32-bit fixed-point and 16-bit fixed-point and compared regarding code size, computational effort, and fusion quality. Code size and computational effort are evaluated on an ARM Cortex M0+. For the assessment of the functional properties, the sensor fusion output is compared to a camera generated reference and analyzed in an extensive statistical analysis to determine how data format, algorithm, and human interaction influence the quality of the sensor fusion. Our experiments show that using fixed-point arithmetic can significantly decrease the computational complexity while still maintaining a high fusion quality and all four algorithms are applicable for applications with human interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor fusion; fixed-point arithmetic; hardware restrictions; AHRS algorithms; human interaction sensor fusion; fixed-point arithmetic; hardware restrictions; AHRS algorithms; human interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Büscher, N.; Gis, D.; Kühn, V.; Haubelt, C. On the Functional and Extra-Functional Properties of IMU Fusion Algorithms for Body-Worn Smart Sensors. Sensors 2021, 21, 2747. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082747

AMA Style

Büscher N, Gis D, Kühn V, Haubelt C. On the Functional and Extra-Functional Properties of IMU Fusion Algorithms for Body-Worn Smart Sensors. Sensors. 2021; 21(8):2747. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082747

Chicago/Turabian Style

Büscher, Nils; Gis, Daniel; Kühn, Volker; Haubelt, Christian. 2021. "On the Functional and Extra-Functional Properties of IMU Fusion Algorithms for Body-Worn Smart Sensors" Sensors 21, no. 8: 2747. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082747

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