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Electrochemical DNA Biosensor That Detects Early Celiac Disease Autoantibodies

1
Biomolecular Sciences and Engineering Program, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
2
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO 80204, USA
3
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Facci
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082671
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 5 April 2021 / Accepted: 8 April 2021 / Published: 10 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Although it is estimated that more than one million Americans have celiac disease (CD), it remains challenging to diagnose. CD, an autoimmune and inflammatory response following the ingestion of gluten-containing foods, has symptoms overlapping with other diseases and requires invasive diagnostics. The gold standard for CD diagnosis involves serologic blood tests followed by invasive confirmatory biopsies. Here, we propose a less invasive method using an electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) biosensor for CD-specific autoantibodies (AABs) circulating in blood. In our approach, CD-specific AABs bind a synthetic neoepitope, causing a conformational change in the biosensor, as well as a change in the environment of an attached redox reporter, producing a measurable current reduction. We assessed the biosensor’s ability to detect CD-specific patient-derived AABs in physiological buffer as well as buffer supplemented with bovine serum. Our biosensor was able to detect AABs in a dose-dependent manner; increased signal change correlated with increased AAB concentration with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.09 ± 0.03 units/mL of AABs. Furthermore, we found our biosensor to be target-specific, with minimal off-target binding of multiple unrelated biomarkers. Future efforts aimed at increasing sensitivity in complex media may build upon the biosensor design presented here to further improve CD AAB detection and CD diagnostic tools. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; celiac disease autoantibodies; E-DNA-based biosensors; biosensor; celiac disease autoantibody epitope; celiac disease diagnostics celiac disease; celiac disease autoantibodies; E-DNA-based biosensors; biosensor; celiac disease autoantibody epitope; celiac disease diagnostics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, A.B.N.; Maldonado, M.; Poch, D.; Sodia, T.; Smith, A.; Rowland, T.J.; Bonham, A.J. Electrochemical DNA Biosensor That Detects Early Celiac Disease Autoantibodies. Sensors 2021, 21, 2671. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082671

AMA Style

Nguyen ABN, Maldonado M, Poch D, Sodia T, Smith A, Rowland TJ, Bonham AJ. Electrochemical DNA Biosensor That Detects Early Celiac Disease Autoantibodies. Sensors. 2021; 21(8):2671. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nguyen, Anna B.N., Marcos Maldonado, Dylan Poch, Tyler Sodia, Andrew Smith, Teisha J. Rowland, and Andrew J. Bonham. 2021. "Electrochemical DNA Biosensor That Detects Early Celiac Disease Autoantibodies" Sensors 21, no. 8: 2671. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082671

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