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Article

Actigraphic Measurement of the Upper Limbs for the Prediction of Ischemic Stroke Prognosis: An Observational Study

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Department of Geriatrics, Neurosciences and Orthopedics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, L. Go F. Vito, 1-00168 Rome, Italy
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Unità Operativa Complessa Neuroriabilitazione ad Alta Intensità, Largo A. Gemelli, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 8-00168 Rome, Italy
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Unità Operativa Complessa Medicina Fisica e Riabilitazione, Largo A. Gemelli, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 8-00168 Rome, Italy
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Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino, Viale XXIV Maggio, 7-04100 Latina, Italy
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SMART Engineering Solutions & Technologies Research Center, Università Telematica “e-Campus”, Via Isimbardi, 10-22060 Novedrate, Italy
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Biomedical Technology Department, IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Via Capecelatro, 66-20148 Milan, Italy
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Unità Operativa Neurologia, Largo A, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Gemelli, 8-00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelo Maria Sabatini
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072479
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 30 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors for Risk Assessment and Injury Prevention)
Background: It is often challenging to formulate a reliable prognosis for patients with acute ischemic stroke. The most accepted prognostic factors may not be sufficient to predict the recovery process. In this view, describing the evolution of motor deficits over time via sensors might be useful for strengthening the prognostic model. Our aim was to assess whether an actigraphic-based parameter (Asymmetry Rate Index for the 24 h period (AR2_24 h)) obtained in the acute stroke phase could be a predictor of a 90 d prognosis. Methods: In this observational study, we recorded and analyzed the 24 h upper limb movement asymmetry of 20 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke during their stay in a stroke unit. We recorded the motor activity of both arms using two programmable actigraphic systems positioned on patients’ wrists. We clinically evaluated the stroke patients by NIHSS in the acute phase and then assessed them across 90 days using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: We found that the AR2_24 h parameter positively correlates with the 90 d mRS (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). Moreover, we found that an AR2_24 h > 32% predicts a poorer outcome (90 d mRS > 2), with sensitivity = 100% and specificity = 89%. Conclusions: Sensor-based parameters might provide useful information for predicting ischemic stroke prognosis in the acute phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: cerebrovascular diseases; ischemic stroke; prognosis; actigraphy; inertial sensors cerebrovascular diseases; ischemic stroke; prognosis; actigraphy; inertial sensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reale, G.; Giovannini, S.; Iacovelli, C.; Castiglia, S.F.; Picerno, P.; Zauli, A.; Rabuffetti, M.; Ferrarin, M.; Maccauro, G.; Caliandro, P. Actigraphic Measurement of the Upper Limbs for the Prediction of Ischemic Stroke Prognosis: An Observational Study. Sensors 2021, 21, 2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072479

AMA Style

Reale G, Giovannini S, Iacovelli C, Castiglia SF, Picerno P, Zauli A, Rabuffetti M, Ferrarin M, Maccauro G, Caliandro P. Actigraphic Measurement of the Upper Limbs for the Prediction of Ischemic Stroke Prognosis: An Observational Study. Sensors. 2021; 21(7):2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reale, Giuseppe, Silvia Giovannini, Chiara Iacovelli, Stefano F. Castiglia, Pietro Picerno, Aurelia Zauli, Marco Rabuffetti, Maurizio Ferrarin, Giulio Maccauro, and Pietro Caliandro. 2021. "Actigraphic Measurement of the Upper Limbs for the Prediction of Ischemic Stroke Prognosis: An Observational Study" Sensors 21, no. 7: 2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072479

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