Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) spoofing poses a significant threat to maritime logistics. Many maritime electronic devices rely on GNSS time, positioning, and speed for safe vessel operation. In this study, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Doppler velocity log (DVL) devices, which are important in the event of GNSS spoofing or outage, are considered in conventional navigation. A velocity integration method using IMU and DVL in terms of dead-reckoning is investigated in this study. GNSS has been widely used for ship navigation, but IMU, DVL, or combined IMU and DVL navigation have received little attention. Military-grade sensors are very expensive and generally cannot be utilized in smaller vessels. Therefore, this study focuses on the use of consumer-grade sensors. First, the performance of a micro electromechanical system (MEMS)-based yaw rate angle with DVL was evaluated using 60 min of raw data for a 50 m-long ship located in Tokyo Bay. Second, the performance of an IMU-MEMS using three gyroscopes and three accelerometers with DVL was evaluated using the same dataset. A gyrocompass, which is equipped on the ship, is used as a heading reference. The results proved that both methods could achieve less than 1 km horizontal error in 60 min.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited