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Article

An Indoor Visible Light Positioning System Using Tilted LEDs with High Accuracy

1
Instituto de Telecomunicações and Departamento de Electrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Optical Communications Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
3
Department of Electromagnetic Field, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 16627 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Moschitta
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030920
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visible Light Communication, Networking, and Sensing)
The accuracy of the received signal strength-based visible light positioning (VLP) system in indoor applications is constrained by the tilt angles of transmitters (Txs) and receivers as well as multipath reflections. In this paper, for the first time, we show that tilting the Tx can be beneficial in VLP systems considering both line of sight (LoS) and non-line of sight transmission paths. With the Txs oriented towards the center of the receiving plane (i.e., the pointing center F), the received power level is maximized due to the LoS components on F. We also show that the proposed scheme offers a significant accuracy improvement of up to ~66% compared with a typical non-tilted Tx VLP at a dedicated location within a room using a low complex linear least square algorithm with polynomial regression. The effect of tilting the Tx on the lighting uniformity is also investigated and results proved that the uniformity achieved complies with the European Standard EN 12464-1. Furthermore, we show that the accuracy of VLP can be further enhanced with a minimum positioning error of 8 mm by changing the height of F. View Full-Text
Keywords: localization; visible light communication; visible light positioning; received signal strength; linear least square; polynomial regression; Tx’s tilting localization; visible light communication; visible light positioning; received signal strength; linear least square; polynomial regression; Tx’s tilting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chaudhary, N.; Younus, O.I.; Alves, L.N.; Ghassemlooy, Z.; Zvanovec, S.; Le-Minh, H. An Indoor Visible Light Positioning System Using Tilted LEDs with High Accuracy. Sensors 2021, 21, 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030920

AMA Style

Chaudhary N, Younus OI, Alves LN, Ghassemlooy Z, Zvanovec S, Le-Minh H. An Indoor Visible Light Positioning System Using Tilted LEDs with High Accuracy. Sensors. 2021; 21(3):920. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chaudhary, Neha, Othman I. Younus, Luis N. Alves, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Stanislav Zvanovec, and Hoa Le-Minh. 2021. "An Indoor Visible Light Positioning System Using Tilted LEDs with High Accuracy" Sensors 21, no. 3: 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030920

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