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Article

Rapid Detection of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Using Microwave Immunosensor Cavity Resonator

1
Microstrip Department, Electronics Research Institute (ERI), El Nozha 11843, Egypt
2
Electrical Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Badr University in Cairo, Badr 11829, Egypt
3
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
4
Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA), Dokki, Giza 12654, Egypt
5
National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Raffaele Velotta
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7021; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217021
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 9 August 2021 / Published: 23 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
This paper presents a rapid diagnostic device for the detection of the pandemic coronavirus (COVID-19) using a micro-immunosensor cavity resonator. Coronavirus has been declared an international public health crisis, so it is important to design quick diagnostic methods for the detection of infected cases, especially in rural areas, to limit the spread of the virus. Herein, a proof-of-concept is presented for a portable laboratory device for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus using electromagnetic biosensors. This device is a microwave cavity resonator (MCR) composed of a sensor operating at industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) 2.45 GHz inserted in 3D housing. The changes of electrical properties of measured serum samples after passing the sensor surface are presented. The three change parameters of the sensor are resonating frequency value, amplitude and phase of the reflection coefficient |S11|. This immune-sensor offers a portable, rapid and accurate diagnostic method for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can enable on-site diagnosis of infection. Medical validation for the device is performed through biostatistical analysis using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) method. The predictive accuracy of the device is 63.3% and 60.6% for reflection and phase, respectively. The device has advantages of low cost, low size and weight and rapid response. It does need a trained technician to operate it since a software program operates automatically. The device can be used at ports’ quarantine units, hospitals, etc. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-immunosensor; electromagnetic sensing; diagnostics; COVID-19; coronavirus; pocket vector network analyzer (VNA); microwave cavity resonator (MCR); ELISA; real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) micro-immunosensor; electromagnetic sensing; diagnostics; COVID-19; coronavirus; pocket vector network analyzer (VNA); microwave cavity resonator (MCR); ELISA; real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elsheakh, D.M.; Ahmed, M.I.; Elashry, G.M.; Moghannem, S.M.; Elsadek, H.A.; Elmazny, W.N.; Alieldin, N.H.; Abdallah, E.A. Rapid Detection of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Using Microwave Immunosensor Cavity Resonator. Sensors 2021, 21, 7021. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217021

AMA Style

Elsheakh DM, Ahmed MI, Elashry GM, Moghannem SM, Elsadek HA, Elmazny WN, Alieldin NH, Abdallah EA. Rapid Detection of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Using Microwave Immunosensor Cavity Resonator. Sensors. 2021; 21(21):7021. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elsheakh, Dalia M., Mohamed I. Ahmed, Gomaa M. Elashry, Saad M. Moghannem, Hala A. Elsadek, Waleed N. Elmazny, Nelly H. Alieldin, and Esmat A. Abdallah. 2021. "Rapid Detection of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Using Microwave Immunosensor Cavity Resonator" Sensors 21, no. 21: 7021. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217021

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