The introduction of various networks into automotive cyber-physical systems (ACPS) brings great challenges on security protection of ACPS functions, the auto industry recommends to adopt the hardware security module (HSM)-based multicore ECU to secure in-vehicle networks while meeting the delay constraint. However, this approach incurs significant hardware cost. Consequently, this paper aims to reduce security enhancing-related hardware cost by proposing two efficient design space exploration (DSE) algorithms, namely, stepwise decreasing-based heuristic algorithm (SDH) and interference balancing-based heuristic algorithm (IBH), which explore the task assignment, task scheduling, and message scheduling to minimize the number of required HSMs. Experiments on both synthetical and real data sets show that the proposed SDH and IBH are superior than state-of-the-art algorithm, and the advantage of SDH and IBH becomes more obvious as the increase about the percentage of security-critical tasks. For synthetic data sets, the hardware cost can be reduced by 61.4% and 45.6% averagely for IBH and SDH, respectively; for real data sets, the hardware cost can be reduced by 64.3% and 54.4% on average for IBH and SDH, respectively. Furthermore, IBH is better than SDH in most cases, and the runtime of IBH is two or three orders of magnitude smaller than SDH and state-of-the-art algorithm.
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