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Article

Photoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature Using LED versus Laser Illumination: A Comparison Study on Tissue Phantoms and In Vivo Humans

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
2
Research & Business Development Division, CYBERDYNE INC, Cambridge Innovation Center, 3013 AK Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Surgery, Penn State Heart and Vascular Institute, Hershey, PA 16802, USA
4
Penn State Hershey College of Medicine and Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
5
Penn State Cancer Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
6
Graduate Program in Acoustics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020424
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 9 January 2021
Vascular diseases are becoming an epidemic with an increasing aging population and increases in obesity and type II diabetes. Point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and monitoring of vascular diseases is an unmet medical need. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) provides label-free multiparametric information of deep vasculature based on strong absorption of light photons by hemoglobin molecules. However, conventional PAI systems use bulky nanosecond lasers which hinders POC applications. Recently, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have emerged as cost-effective and portable optical sources for the PAI of living subjects. However, state-of-art LED arrays carry significantly lower optical energy (<0.5 mJ/pulse) and high pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) (4 KHz) compared to the high-power laser sources (100 mJ/pulse) with low PRFs of 10 Hz. Given these tradeoffs between portability, cost, optical energy and frame rate, this work systematically studies the deep tissue PAI performance of LED and laser illuminations to help select a suitable source for a given biomedical application. To draw a fair comparison, we developed a fiberoptic array that delivers laser illumination similar to the LED array and uses the same ultrasound transducer and data acquisition platform for PAI with these two illuminations. Several controlled studies on tissue phantoms demonstrated that portable LED arrays with high frame averaging show higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of up to 30 mm depth, and the high-energy laser source was found to be more effective for imaging depths greater than 30 mm at similar frame rates. Label-free in vivo imaging of human hand vasculature studies further confirmed that the vascular contrast from LED-PAI is similar to laser-PAI for up to 2 cm depths. Therefore, LED-PAI systems have strong potential to be a mobile health care technology for diagnosing vascular diseases such as peripheral arterial disease and stroke in POC and resource poor settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep tissue imaging; hemangioma; laser; light-emitting diodes (LED); mobile health; peripheral arterial disease; photoacoustic imaging; stroke; vascular malformations deep tissue imaging; hemangioma; laser; light-emitting diodes (LED); mobile health; peripheral arterial disease; photoacoustic imaging; stroke; vascular malformations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Agrawal, S.; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, M.; Johnstonbaugh, K.; C. Han, D.; R. Pameijer, C.; Kothapalli, S.-R. Photoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature Using LED versus Laser Illumination: A Comparison Study on Tissue Phantoms and In Vivo Humans. Sensors 2021, 21, 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020424

AMA Style

Agrawal S, Kuniyil Ajith Singh M, Johnstonbaugh K, C. Han D, R. Pameijer C, Kothapalli S-R. Photoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature Using LED versus Laser Illumination: A Comparison Study on Tissue Phantoms and In Vivo Humans. Sensors. 2021; 21(2):424. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Agrawal, Sumit, Mithun Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Kerrick Johnstonbaugh, David C. Han, Colette R. Pameijer, and Sri-Rajasekhar Kothapalli. 2021. "Photoacoustic Imaging of Human Vasculature Using LED versus Laser Illumination: A Comparison Study on Tissue Phantoms and In Vivo Humans" Sensors 21, no. 2: 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020424

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