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Article

Ranging with Frequency Dependent Ultrasound Air Attenuation

1
Department of Information Engineering, Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy (DIIES), Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technologies (DIETI), University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
3
HWA SRL, Spin-Off Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, 89126 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edwin C. Kan
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 4963; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154963
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Systems for Indoor Positioning)
Measuring the distance between two points has multiple uses. Position can be geometrically calculated from multiple measurements of the distance between reference points and moving sensors. Distance measurement can be done by measuring the time of flight of an ultrasonic signal traveling from an emitter to receiving sensors. However, this requires close synchronization between the emitter and the sensors. This synchronization is usually done using a radio or optical channel, which requires additional hardware and power to operate. On the other hand, for many applications of great interest, low-cost, small, and lightweight sensors with very small batteries are required. Here, an innovative technique to measure the distance between emitter and receiver by using ultrasonic signals in air is proposed. In fact, the amount of the signal attenuation in air depends on the frequency content of the signal itself. The attenuation level that the signal undergoes at different frequencies provides information on the distance between emitter and receiver without the need for any synchronization between them. A mathematical relationship here proposed allows for estimating the distance between emitter and receiver starting from the measurement of the frequency dependent attenuation along the traveled path. The level of attenuation in the air is measured online along the operation of the proposed technique. The simulations showed that the range accuracy increases with the decrease of the ultrasonic transducer diameter. In particular, with a diameter of 0.5 mm, an error of less than ± 2.7 cm (average value 1.1 cm) is reached along two plane sections of the typical room of the office considered (4 × 4 × 3 m3). View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasonic ranging; frequency dependent attenuation; ultrasonic signal ultrasonic ranging; frequency dependent attenuation; ultrasonic signal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carotenuto, R.; Pezzimenti, F.; Della Corte, F.G.; Iero, D.; Merenda, M. Ranging with Frequency Dependent Ultrasound Air Attenuation. Sensors 2021, 21, 4963. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154963

AMA Style

Carotenuto R, Pezzimenti F, Della Corte FG, Iero D, Merenda M. Ranging with Frequency Dependent Ultrasound Air Attenuation. Sensors. 2021; 21(15):4963. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154963

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carotenuto, Riccardo, Fortunato Pezzimenti, Francesco G. Della Corte, Demetrio Iero, and Massimo Merenda. 2021. "Ranging with Frequency Dependent Ultrasound Air Attenuation" Sensors 21, no. 15: 4963. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154963

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