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Article

An Autonomous Robot-Aided Auditing Scheme for Floor Cleaning

Engineering Product Development Pillar, Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Singapore 487372, Singapore
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Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134332
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 20 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensors and Robotics)
Cleaning is an important factor in most aspects of our day-to-day life. This research work brings a solution to the fundamental question of “How clean is clean” by introducing a novel framework for auditing the cleanliness of built infrastructure using mobile robots. The proposed system presents a strategy for assessing the quality of cleaning in a given area and a novel exploration strategy that facilitates the auditing in a given location by a mobile robot. An audit sensor that works by the “touch and inspect” analogy that assigns an audit score corresponds to its area of inspection has been developed. A vision-based dirt-probability-driven exploration is proposed to empower a mobile robot with an audit sensor on-board to perform auditing tasks effectively. The quality of cleaning is quantified using a dirt density map representing location-wise audit scores, dirt distribution pattern obtained by kernel density estimation, and cleaning benchmark score representing the extent of cleanliness. The framework is realized in an in-house developed audit robot to perform the cleaning audit in indoor and semi-outdoor environments. The proposed method is validated by experiment trials to estimate the cleanliness in five different locations using the developed audit sensor and dirt-probability-driven exploration. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous cleaning audit; cleaning benchmark; audit robot; dirt driven exploration autonomous cleaning audit; cleaning benchmark; audit robot; dirt driven exploration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pathmakumar, T.; Kalimuthu, M.; Elara, M.R.; Ramalingam, B. An Autonomous Robot-Aided Auditing Scheme for Floor Cleaning. Sensors 2021, 21, 4332. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134332

AMA Style

Pathmakumar T, Kalimuthu M, Elara MR, Ramalingam B. An Autonomous Robot-Aided Auditing Scheme for Floor Cleaning. Sensors. 2021; 21(13):4332. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134332

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pathmakumar, Thejus, Manivannan Kalimuthu, Mohan Rajesh Elara, and Balakrishnan Ramalingam. 2021. "An Autonomous Robot-Aided Auditing Scheme for Floor Cleaning" Sensors 21, no. 13: 4332. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134332

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