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Review

Single Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Via G. Ponzio 34/5, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Academic Editor: Anna Chiara De Luca
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4287; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134287
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women in Sensors)
The detection of peaks shifts in Raman spectroscopy enables a fingerprint reconstruction to discriminate among molecules with neither labelling nor sample preparation. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to reject the strong fluorescence background that profits from the time scale difference in the two responses: Raman photons are scattered almost instantaneously while fluorescence shows a nanoseconds time constant decay. The combination of short laser pulses with time-gated detectors enables the collection of only those photons synchronous with the pulse, thus rejecting fluorescent ones. This review addresses time-gating issues from the sensor standpoint and identifies single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays as the most suitable single-photon detectors to be rapidly and precisely time-gated without bulky, complex, or expensive setups. At first, we discuss the requirements for ideal Raman SPAD arrays, particularly focusing on the design guidelines for optimized on-chip processing electronics. Then we present some existing SPAD-based architectures, featuring specific operation modes which can be usefully exploited for Raman spectroscopy. Finally, we highlight key aspects for future ultrafast Raman platforms and highly integrated sensors capable of undistorted identification of Raman peaks across many pixels. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-resolved Raman spectroscopy; fluorescence suppression; single photon avalanche diode (SPAD); SPAD array; time gating; single photon counting (SPC); time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) time-resolved Raman spectroscopy; fluorescence suppression; single photon avalanche diode (SPAD); SPAD array; time gating; single photon counting (SPC); time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Madonini, F.; Villa, F. Single Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy. Sensors 2021, 21, 4287. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134287

AMA Style

Madonini F, Villa F. Single Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy. Sensors. 2021; 21(13):4287. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134287

Chicago/Turabian Style

Madonini, Francesca, and Federica Villa. 2021. "Single Photon Avalanche Diode Arrays for Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy" Sensors 21, no. 13: 4287. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134287

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