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On the Use of NB-IoT over GEO Satellite Systems with Time-Packed Optical Feeder Links for Over-the-Air Firmware/Software Updates of Machine-Type Terminals

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Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC/CERCA), Department of Array and Multi-Sensor Processing, Av. Karl Friedriech Gauss 7—Building B4, 08860 Castelldefels, Spain
2
Department of Communications and Networking, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carles Gómez
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 3952; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21123952
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Paper from GC-ElecEng 2020)
The verticals of 5G, such as the automotive, smart grid, and smart cities sectors, will bring new sensors and IoT devices requiring Internet connectivity. Most of these machine-type terminals will be sparsely distributed, covering a very large geographical area and, from time to time, will have to update their software, firmware, and/or other relevant data. Given this situation, one viable solution to implement the “Over-the-Air” update of these IoT terminals can be done with the aid of GEO satellite systems. However, due to the ultra-dense radio frequency reuse factor that contemporary High-Throughput Satellite (HTS) systems implement in the access link to serve the IoT terminals, the use of a time-packed Free Space Optical (FSO) link represents a practical solution to avoid the bottleneck that the satellite gateway experiences in the feeder link. The performance of both Detect-and-Forward and Decode-and-Forward relaying strategies are studied, assuming that the single-carrier M-PAM symbols that are transmitted on the optical feeder link are mapped into M-QAM symbols that modulate the multiple sub-carriers of the OFDM-based radio access link. In addition, the benefits of encapsulating the NB-IoT frames into DVB-S2(X) satellite frames is also analyzed in detail. The effects of the impairments introduced in both the optical feeder and radio access links are characterized in detail, and the end-to-end error correction capabilities of the Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS) defined in the contemporary releases of the NB-IoT and DVB-S2(X) standards are studied for different working regimes. View Full-Text
Keywords: NB-IoT; DVB-S2(X); high-throughput satellite; optical feeder link; over-the-air updates; time-packing; decode-and-forward; scintillation; beam-wander; convolutional coding NB-IoT; DVB-S2(X); high-throughput satellite; optical feeder link; over-the-air updates; time-packing; decode-and-forward; scintillation; beam-wander; convolutional coding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bas, J.; Dowhuszko, A.A. On the Use of NB-IoT over GEO Satellite Systems with Time-Packed Optical Feeder Links for Over-the-Air Firmware/Software Updates of Machine-Type Terminals. Sensors 2021, 21, 3952. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21123952

AMA Style

Bas J, Dowhuszko AA. On the Use of NB-IoT over GEO Satellite Systems with Time-Packed Optical Feeder Links for Over-the-Air Firmware/Software Updates of Machine-Type Terminals. Sensors. 2021; 21(12):3952. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21123952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bas, Joan, and Alexis A. Dowhuszko 2021. "On the Use of NB-IoT over GEO Satellite Systems with Time-Packed Optical Feeder Links for Over-the-Air Firmware/Software Updates of Machine-Type Terminals" Sensors 21, no. 12: 3952. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21123952

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