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Article

Assessing Visual Exploratory Activity of Athletes in Virtual Reality Using Head Motion Characteristics

1
Machine Learning and Data Analytics Lab, Department of Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Engineering (AIBE), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Carl-Thiersch-Straße 2b, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
2
Adidas AG, Adi-Dassler-Straße 1, 91074 Herzogenaurach, Germany
3
Human-Centered Computing and Extended Reality, Department of Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Engineering (AIBE), Friedrich-Alexander-Universtität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Henkestr. 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sašo Tomažič, Anton Umek and Anton Kos
Sensors 2021, 21(11), 3728; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113728
Received: 2 May 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 23 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
Maximizing performance success in sports is about continuous learning and adaptation processes. Aside from physiological, technical and emotional performance factors, previous research focused on perceptual skills, revealing their importance for decision-making. This includes deriving relevant environmental information as a result of eye, head and body movement interaction. However, to evaluate visual exploratory activity (VEA), generally utilized laboratory settings have restrictions that disregard the representativeness of assessment environments and/or decouple coherent cognitive and motor tasks. In vivo studies, however, are costly and hard to reproduce. Furthermore, the application of elaborate methods like eye tracking are cumbersome to implement and necessitate expert knowledge to interpret results correctly. In this paper, we introduce a virtual reality-based reproducible assessment method allowing the evaluation of VEA. To give insights into perceptual-cognitive processes, an easily interpretable head movement-based metric, quantifying VEA of athletes, is investigated. Our results align with comparable in vivo experiments and consequently extend them by showing the validity of the implemented approach as well as the use of virtual reality to determine characteristics among different skill levels. The findings imply that the developed method could provide accurate assessments while improving the control, validity and interpretability, which in turn informs future research and developments. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; visual exploratory activity; perceptual–cognitive skills; head turn activity virtual reality; visual exploratory activity; perceptual–cognitive skills; head turn activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wirth, M.; Kohl, S.; Gradl, S.; Farlock, R.; Roth, D.; Eskofier, B.M. Assessing Visual Exploratory Activity of Athletes in Virtual Reality Using Head Motion Characteristics. Sensors 2021, 21, 3728. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113728

AMA Style

Wirth M, Kohl S, Gradl S, Farlock R, Roth D, Eskofier BM. Assessing Visual Exploratory Activity of Athletes in Virtual Reality Using Head Motion Characteristics. Sensors. 2021; 21(11):3728. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wirth, Markus, Sebastian Kohl, Stefan Gradl, Rosanna Farlock, Daniel Roth, and Bjoern M. Eskofier. 2021. "Assessing Visual Exploratory Activity of Athletes in Virtual Reality Using Head Motion Characteristics" Sensors 21, no. 11: 3728. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113728

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