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Article

Quantitative Analysis of Real-Time Infrared Thermography for the Assessment of Lumbar Sympathetic Blocks: A Preliminary Study

1
Applied Thermodynamics Department (DTRA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Research Group in Sports Biomechanics (GIBD), Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibáñez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Research Group in Medical Physics (GIFIME), Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibáñez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
4
Anaesthesia Department, Hospital Intermutual de Levante, Sant Antoni de Benaixeve, 46184 Valencia, Spain
5
Center for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Redha Taiar, Mario Bernardo-Filho and Simona M. Cristescu
Sensors 2021, 21(11), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113573
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 9 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Sensors in Biomechanics, Health Disease and Rehabilitation)
Lumbar sympathetic blocks (LSBs) are commonly performed to treat pain ailments in the lower limbs. LSBs involve injecting local anesthetic around the nerves. The injection is guided by fluoroscopy which is sometimes considered to be insufficiently accurate. The main aim was to analyze the plantar foot skin temperature data acquired while performing LSBs in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) affecting the lower limbs. Forty-four LSBs for treating lower limb CRPS in 13 patients were assessed. Pain medicine physicians visualized the infrared thermography (IRT) video in real time and classified the performance depending on the observed thermal changes within the first 4 min. Thirty-two percent of the cases did not register temperature variations after lidocaine was injected, requiring the needle to be relocated. Differences between moments are indicated using the 95% confidence intervals of the differences (CI 95%), the Cohen effect size (ES) and the significance (p value). In successful cases, after injecting lidocaine, increases at minute 7 for the mean (CI 95% (1.4, 2.1 °C), p < 0.001 and ES = 0.5), at minute 5 for maximum temperature (CI 95% (2.3, 3.3 °C), p < 0.001 and ES = 0.6) and at minute 6 for SD (CI 95% (0.2, 0.3 °C), p < 0.001 and ES = 0.5) were observed. The results of our preliminary study showed that the measurement of skin temperature in real time by infrared thermography is valuable for assessing the success of lumbar sympathetic blocks. View Full-Text
Keywords: complex regional pain syndrome; skin temperature; thermal image; lower limbs; regional anesthesia complex regional pain syndrome; skin temperature; thermal image; lower limbs; regional anesthesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cañada-Soriano, M.; Priego-Quesada, J.I.; Bovaira, M.; García-Vitoria, C.; Salvador Palmer, R.; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R.; Moratal, D. Quantitative Analysis of Real-Time Infrared Thermography for the Assessment of Lumbar Sympathetic Blocks: A Preliminary Study. Sensors 2021, 21, 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113573

AMA Style

Cañada-Soriano M, Priego-Quesada JI, Bovaira M, García-Vitoria C, Salvador Palmer R, Cibrián Ortiz de Anda R, Moratal D. Quantitative Analysis of Real-Time Infrared Thermography for the Assessment of Lumbar Sympathetic Blocks: A Preliminary Study. Sensors. 2021; 21(11):3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cañada-Soriano, Mar, José I. Priego-Quesada, Maite Bovaira, Carles García-Vitoria, Rosario Salvador Palmer, Rosa Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, and David Moratal. 2021. "Quantitative Analysis of Real-Time Infrared Thermography for the Assessment of Lumbar Sympathetic Blocks: A Preliminary Study" Sensors 21, no. 11: 3573. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21113573

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