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Open AccessArticle

Measuring Smoothness as a Factor for Efficient and Socially Accepted Robot Motion

1
Department of Electronic Technology, University of Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
2
Department of Mechanic Engineering, Computer, and Aerospace Science, University of León, 24007 León, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6822; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236822
Received: 15 October 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 29 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Robots and Sensors)
Social robots, designed to interact and assist people in social daily life scenarios, require adequate path planning algorithms to navigate autonomously through these environments. These algorithms have not only to find feasible paths but also to consider other requirements, such as optimizing energy consumption or making the robot behave in a socially accepted way. Path planning can be tuned according to a set of factors, being the most common path length, safety, and smoothness. This last factor may have a strong relation with energy consumption and social acceptability of produced motion, but this possible relation has never been deeply studied. The current paper focuses on performing a double analysis through two experiments. One of them analyzes energy consumption in a real robot for trajectories that use different smoothness factors. The other analyzes social acceptance for different smoothness factors by presenting different simulated situations to different people and collecting their impressions. The results of these experiments show that, in general terms, smoother paths decrease energy consumption and increase acceptability, as far as other key factors, such as distance to people, are fulfilled. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoothness; path planning; energy consumption; social navigation; multi-objective optimization; robotics smoothness; path planning; energy consumption; social navigation; multi-objective optimization; robotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guillén Ruiz, S.; Calderita, L.V.; Hidalgo-Paniagua, A.; Bandera Rubio, J.P. Measuring Smoothness as a Factor for Efficient and Socially Accepted Robot Motion. Sensors 2020, 20, 6822.

AMA Style

Guillén Ruiz S, Calderita LV, Hidalgo-Paniagua A, Bandera Rubio JP. Measuring Smoothness as a Factor for Efficient and Socially Accepted Robot Motion. Sensors. 2020; 20(23):6822.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guillén Ruiz, Silvia; Calderita, Luis V.; Hidalgo-Paniagua, Alejandro; Bandera Rubio, Juan P. 2020. "Measuring Smoothness as a Factor for Efficient and Socially Accepted Robot Motion" Sensors 20, no. 23: 6822.

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