To satisfy the explosive growth of computation-intensive vehicular applications, we investigated the computation offloading problem in a cognitive vehicular networks (CVN). Specifically, in our scheme, the vehicular cloud computing (VCC)- and remote cloud computing (RCC)-enabled computation offloading were jointly considered. So far, extensive research has been conducted on RCC-based computation offloading, while the studies on VCC-based computation offloading are relatively rare. In fact, due to the dynamic and uncertainty of on-board resource, the VCC-based computation offloading is more challenging then the RCC one, especially under the vehicular scenario with expensive inter-vehicle communication or poor communication environment. To solve this problem, we propose to leverage the VCC’s computation resource for computation offloading with a perception-exploitation way, which mainly comprise resource discovery and computation offloading two stages. In resource discovery stage, upon the action-observation history, a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model is proposed to predict the on-board resource utilizing status at next time slot. Thereafter, based on the obtained computation resource distribution, a decentralized multi-agent Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithm is proposed to solve the collaborative computation offloading with VCC and RCC. Last but not least, the proposed algorithms’ effectiveness is verified with a host of numerical simulation results from different perspectives.
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