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A Study of the Radiation Tolerance of CVD Diamond to 70 MeV Protons, Fast Neutrons and 200 MeV Pions

by 1,*, 2, 3, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 9, 8, 7, 8, 2, 13, 8, 14, 1, 2, 15, 16, 17, 8, 8, 18, 2, 8, 9, 19, 20, 12, 20, 4, 21, 12, 1, 21, 9, 22, 19, 22, 18, 23, 18, 24, 12, 20, 8, 13, 17, 25, 26, 9, 12, 8, 7, 9, 23, 12, 23, 23, 27, 3, 25, 17, 23, 2, 10, 17, 28, 5, 4, 8, 17, 1, 2, 8, 1, 24, 29, 13, 23, 21, 23, 18, 11, 11, 10, 26, 7, 29, 15, 5, 24, 30, 17, 5, 19, 7, 1, 3, 22, 21, 8, 15, 12, 31, 32, 33, 32, 31, 33, 32 and 32 on behalf of the RD42 Collaboration †
1
Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
2
CERN, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
3
Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
4
Institute of Physics, Universität Göttingen, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
5
Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
6
MEPHI Institute, 115409 Moscow, Russia
7
Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
8
LPSC-Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble, France
9
IPHC, F-67000 Strasbourg, France
10
INFN-Lecce, 73100 Lecce, Italy
11
Department of Physics, Czech Technical University, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
12
Department of Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
13
Department of Physics and Astronomy, INFN/University of Florence, 50145 Florence, Italy
14
Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universität Karlsruhe, D-76049 Karlsruhe, Germany
15
Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
16
Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia
17
Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy
18
Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
19
School of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
20
ITEP, 117218 Moscow, Russia
21
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
22
Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
23
INFN-Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
24
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
25
Manchester School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
26
Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
27
Physics Faculty, California State University, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA
28
CEA-LIST Technologies Avancées, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
29
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
30
Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada
31
Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571, Japan
32
KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan
33
School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of The RD42 Collaboration is provided in the Acknowledgements.
Sensors 2020, 20(22), 6648; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20226648
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 2 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation-Hardened Sensors, Circuits and Systems)
We measured the radiation tolerance of commercially available diamonds grown by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process by measuring the charge created by a 120 GeV hadron beam in a 50 μm pitch strip detector fabricated on each diamond sample before and after irradiation. We irradiated one group of samples with 70 MeV protons, a second group of samples with fast reactor neutrons (defined as energy greater than 0.1 MeV), and a third group of samples with 200 MeV pions, in steps, to (8.8±0.9) × 1015 protons/cm2, (1.43±0.14) × 1016 neutrons/cm2, and (6.5±1.4) × 1014 pions/cm2, respectively. By observing the charge induced due to the separation of electron–hole pairs created by the passage of the hadron beam through each sample, on an event-by-event basis, as a function of irradiation fluence, we conclude all datasets can be described by a first-order damage equation and independently calculate the damage constant for 70 MeV protons, fast reactor neutrons, and 200 MeV pions. We find the damage constant for diamond irradiated with 70 MeV protons to be 1.62±0.07(stat)±0.16(syst)× 10−18 cm2/(p μm), the damage constant for diamond irradiated with fast reactor neutrons to be 2.65±0.13(stat)±0.18(syst)× 10−18 cm2/(n μm), and the damage constant for diamond irradiated with 200 MeV pions to be 2.0±0.2(stat)±0.5(syst)× 10−18 cm2/(π μm). The damage constants from this measurement were analyzed together with our previously published 24 GeV proton irradiation and 800 MeV proton irradiation damage constant data to derive the first comprehensive set of relative damage constants for Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond. We find 70 MeV protons are 2.60 ± 0.29 times more damaging than 24 GeV protons, fast reactor neutrons are 4.3 ± 0.4 times more damaging than 24 GeV protons, and 200 MeV pions are 3.2 ± 0.8 more damaging than 24 GeV protons. We also observe the measured data can be described by a universal damage curve for all proton, neutron, and pion irradiations we performed of Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond. Finally, we confirm the spatial uniformity of the collected charge increases with fluence for polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, and this effect can also be described by a universal curve. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chemical Vapor Deposition; single-crystalline diamond; polycrystalline diamond; charge collection distance; mean drift path; schubweg; radiation tolerance; radiation damage constant Chemical Vapor Deposition; single-crystalline diamond; polycrystalline diamond; charge collection distance; mean drift path; schubweg; radiation tolerance; radiation damage constant
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Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.R.; Beck, H.C.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Curtoni, S.; Dabrowski, A.E.; D’Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; De Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eigen, G.; Eremin, V.; Forneris, J.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Gan, K.K.; Gastal, M.; Ghimouz, A.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hosselet, J.; Hügging, F.; Hutson, C.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kass, R.; Kis, M.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; López Paz, I.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandić, I.; Marcatili, S.; Marino, A.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moscatelli, F.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Oh, A.; Olivero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Rarbi, F.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Roe, S.; Rossetto, O.; Sanz Becerra, D.A.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, D.S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Stugu, B.; Sutera, C.; Traeger, M.; Trischuk, W.; Truccato, M.; Tuvè, C.; Velthuis, J.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J.; Wermes, N.; Wickramasinghe, J.; Yamouni, M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zavrtanik, M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Kohriki, T.; Mitsui, S.; Nagai, R.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y., on behalf of the RD42 Collaboration †; A Study of the Radiation Tolerance of CVD Diamond to 70 MeV Protons, Fast Neutrons and 200 MeV Pions. Sensors 2020, 20, 6648.

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