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Communication

Portable Gait Lab: Estimating Over-Ground 3D Ground Reaction Forces Using Only a Pelvis IMU

1
Biomedical Signals and Systems, University of Twente, 7522NB Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Roessingh Research and Development, 7522AH Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6363; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216363
Received: 18 September 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 7 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensor-Based Biomechanical Analysis)
As an alternative to force plates, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) at the pelvis can offer an ambulatory method for measuring total center of mass (CoM) accelerations and, thereby, the ground reaction forces (GRF) during gait. The challenge here is to estimate the 3D components of the GRF. We employ a calibration procedure and an error state extended Kalman filter based on an earlier work to estimate the instantaneous 3D GRF for different over-ground walking patterns. The GRF were then expressed in a body-centric reference frame, to enable an ambulatory setup not related to a fixed global frame. The results were validated with ForceShoesTM, and the average error in estimating instantaneous shear GRF was 5.2 ± 0.5% of body weight across different variable over-ground walking tasks. The study shows that a single pelvis IMU can measure 3D GRF in a minimal and ambulatory manner during over-ground gait. View Full-Text
Keywords: inertial measurement units; ground reaction forces; ambulatory; minimal sensing; wearables inertial measurement units; ground reaction forces; ambulatory; minimal sensing; wearables
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamed Refai, M.I.; van Beijnum, B.-J.F.; Buurke, J.H.; Veltink, P.H. Portable Gait Lab: Estimating Over-Ground 3D Ground Reaction Forces Using Only a Pelvis IMU. Sensors 2020, 20, 6363. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216363

AMA Style

Mohamed Refai MI, van Beijnum B-JF, Buurke JH, Veltink PH. Portable Gait Lab: Estimating Over-Ground 3D Ground Reaction Forces Using Only a Pelvis IMU. Sensors. 2020; 20(21):6363. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216363

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohamed Refai, Mohamed I., Bert-Jan F. van Beijnum, Jaap H. Buurke, and Peter H. Veltink. 2020. "Portable Gait Lab: Estimating Over-Ground 3D Ground Reaction Forces Using Only a Pelvis IMU" Sensors 20, no. 21: 6363. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216363

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