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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Back-Scattering and Multipath in a Suburban Area after the Calibration of an X-Band Commercial Radar

Department of Electronic Engineering, Tor Vergata University of Rome and CNIT—National Inter-University Consortium for Telecommunications, RU of Rome, via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques FHR, Fraunhoferstrasse 20, 53343 Wachtberg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 463;
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
The increasing interest in the radar detection of low-elevation and small-size targets in complicated ground environments (such as urban, suburban, and mixed country areas) calls for a precise quantification of the radar detection capabilities in those areas. Hence, a set of procedures is devised and tested, both theoretically and experimentally, using a commercial X-band radar, to (i) calibrate the radar sensor (with an online evaluation of its losses) using standard scatterers, (ii) measure the multipath effect and compensate for it, and (iii) create “true radar cross section” maps of the area of interest for both point and distributed clutter. The above methods and the related field results are aimed at future qualification procedures and practical usage of small, cheap, and easily moveable radars for the detection of low-observable air targets, such as unmanned air vehicles/systems (UAV/UAS), in difficult ground areas. A significant set of experimental results as discussed in the paper confirms the great relevance of multipath in ground-based radar detection, with the need for correcting measures.
Keywords: radar cross-sections; multipath; radar calibration radar cross-sections; multipath; radar calibration
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Galati, G.; Pavan, G.; Wasserzier, C. Characterization of Back-Scattering and Multipath in a Suburban Area after the Calibration of an X-Band Commercial Radar. Sensors 2020, 20, 463.

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