Smartphone-Based Platform for Secure Multi-Hop Message Dissemination in VANETs
1.1. Smartphones in VANETs
1.2. Related Work
- A methodological approach for the design of a mobile platform for enabling the provision of a novel certificateless security approach in a smartphone-based VANETs. In particular, the platform is intended to disseminate sensitive information and as such authentication and integrity checks are mandatory in our design.
- The construction in the asymmetric setting of a Certificateless Signature Scheme (ACSS), relying on pairing-based cryptographic signatures, that ensures authenticity of nodes and integrity of exchanged data among smartphones in VANETs. We present a novel construction of digital signing algorithm based on pairing-based cryptography under the asymmetric setting. The asymmetric property allows practical implementations for security levels compliant with current standards (e.g., 128-bits or greater).
- For the first time, a proof-of-concept, deployment of the ACSS scheme in a smartphone-based platform in VANETs is presented in the literature. We validate our platform over small-scale deployments, using as a baseline a multi-hop message dissemination protocol. Nevertheless, the platform can be used to deploy other message dissemination protocol as required.
2. Security in Vehicular Networking
3. Smartphone-Based Platform Design
3.1. Platform Requirements
- FR1: Message dissemination. The platform must behave either as a source node that starts the transmission of a message or as a relay that rebroadcasts a received message whenever a dissemination criterion is fulfilled.
- FR2: Security. The platform must provide authentication and integrity security services in a per-packet basis.
- FR3: Location-awareness. The platform must retrieve the current location of the device by means of a native location provider or any Bluetooth-enabled GPS device. While the first option is generally adopted, because the convenience and ease of use, the second alternative can be helpful in experiments aimed to contrast precision of location information from different providers. It should also be able to adjust intervals for location requests, which could be useful for deploying energy- and context-aware oriented mechanisms in VANET mechanisms and applications.
- FR4: Performance metrics. The platform must monitor and store relevant metrics related to message dissemination (e.g., delay, losses) and security services (e.g., execution time, memory usage). The collected metrics should be stored locally, and global statistics should be accessible by the user.
- FR5: Packet management. The platform must support a flexible packet management mechanism to enable the definition of application specific packet formats.
- NFR1: Passiveness. The user should not be aware of the underlying operation mechanisms on the smartphone-based platform for secure message dissemination. Moreover, minimal user involvement should be required for the configuration of basic elements.
- NFR2: Modifiability. The platform components should be organized to ease the understanding of its functional principles and interaction among components, allowing the integration of new functionalities.
- NFR3: Energy. The platform should provide the means for deploying mechanisms to drive a trade-off between energy efficiency and data transmission.
- NFR4: Network management. A given node running the platform should create, discover, and connect to the VANET without the intervention of any managing entity or infrastructure.
3.2. Platform Modules Definition
- Once the initial parameters have been introduced, the platform firstly creates the required sockets for message transmission and reception. This is because in our design a smart device deploying the platform could behave either as a source or as a relay node. A source node is the one that starts broadcasting a warning message to inform about a given event inferred from its sensed context. A relay node is expected to extend coverage transmission by rebroadcasting an incoming message. Although in this case no additional payload would be added to the received message, the node would require its contextual information (e.g., location, power, etc.) to determine if the considered dissemination criterion is fulfilled.
- At the application framework layer, the packet management module provides the functionality of packet generation according to a predefined packet format as illustrated in Table 2. Although the packet format could be easily modified to prevent large overhead amounts, the packet management component could also support power-aware strategies to drive trade-off between transmission packet delay and overhead-payload ratio. Each generated packet triggers an event at the storage module that records outgoing/ingoing packets processed by the platform.
- The wireless interface manager location at the application framework layer aims to control the interaction with the location providers. Unlike existing works that mainly rely on native GPS receiver, depending on energy constraints and location accuracy, our platform is designed to acquire location data from a native GPS sensor or an external GPS logger device accessed via Bluetooth. Regardless of the location provider, when the node deploying the platform needs to disseminate a message, at the TX module the location information is appended on each generated packet. On the contrary, when a message is received (RX module) it is verified and registered and then it is passed to the dissemination protocol module. This latter one decides whether the received message should be retransmitted to the next hop or not, taking into account a distance criterion.
- Upon the transmission or reception of a packet, a record of its payload is saved in a file. The information stored in the file conforms the Packet fields registry, which is maintained in the main storage directory of the device. The file (i.e., registry) contains the data of each packet that is part of an existing communication. A text string containing the payload’s fields is obtained from the object modeling the packet. The resulting file is available for statistical analysis offline at the end of the test trials.
3.3. Security Services in the VANET Platform
4. Asymmetric Certificateless Signature Scheme (ACSS)
- , with g a generator in .
4.2. Description of Our ACSS
- is the vehicle unique identifier (e.g., license plate).
- Compute = (in ).
- Compute = . is the partial private key for the vehicle v (in ).
- is the vehicle partial private key.
- Choose a random value a in (the set ).
- Assign the tuple as the private key of v.
- Assign the value as the public key of v.
- M is the message to be signed by v.
- is v’s identifier.
- is v’s private key.
- is v’s public key.
- v chooses a random value a in (the set ).
- v computes (in ).
- v computes
- Compute , where ’+’ is the group operation in .
- The digital signature of M by v is .
- M is the received message and its signature is .
- is v’s identifier.
- is v’s public key.
- Compute (in ).
- Compute (in ).
- Compute (in ).
- If equals to , the signature is valid and the message is considered authentic. If not, the message should be discarded. Here, the ’×’ operator is the group operation in .
4.3. Security Assumptions
- The master private key must be kept secure and the transport of partial private keys from the TA to the vehicles during the enrollment process must be secure, for example, using a SSL-enabled connection. Another alternative is the car manufacturer to install the key material in the vehicle offline.
5. Android Implementation
5.1. Wi-Fi Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
- The Server class, to create objects that listen on a port for newly received messages. This object keeps listening in the same port for new messages, and dispatch each one in a separated thread.
- The ServerTasks extends from the AsyncTask class and operates in the background. This class processes every received packet and obtains the reception timestamp. In addition, the message content fields are then stored in a file for future analysis and statistics extraction.
- The Client class has the main function of sending packets and appending them relevant data, such as GPS position and a unique identifier. This class also extends from AsyncTask, with the purpose of performing its operations in the background.
5.2. Packet Management
5.2.1. Packet Aggregation Mechanism
5.2.2. Packet Records
5.3. GPS Location Readings
5.4. The Security Scheme
6. Experimental Results
- Message dissemination evaluation. The aim of these experiments is to validate the platform’s feasibility for continuous packet generation, transmission, and reception in multi-hop conditions. Then, we also evaluate the performance of a location-based message dissemination protocol to determine the influence of the location provider’s precision on the message dissemination process for selecting the next relay node.
- Security services. We analyze the impact of deploying the proposed ACSS security scheme on our smartphone-based VANET platform in terms of delay and packet loss under different security levels.
- Packet aggregation. We determine the benefits of deploying packet aggregation mechanisms.
6.1. Message Dissemination Evaluation
- Successful reception ratio. Ratio of the total number of nodes and the number of nodes that correctly received the packets.
- Generated load per-broadcast packet. Ratio of the average of total transmitted bits and the total number of broadcast packets received.
- Relay error selection. The average times the protocol selects an erroneous relay node for broadcast purposes.
- Packet loss ratio. The percentage of packets lost per number of packets transmitted.
6.2. Impact of the Security Scheme
6.3. Packet Aggregation Evaluation
7. Concluding Remarks
Conflicts of Interest
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|2017 ||Smartphones (Android)||Traffic event-based notifications||V2I (single-hop)||3G||Authentication|
|2016 ||Smartphones, tablets (Android)||Periodic message exchange||V2V (single-hop)||Wi-Fi||None|
|2016 ||Smartphones (Android)||Periodic message exchange||V2V (single-hop)||Wi-Fi||None|
|2016 ||Smartphones (Android), Raspberry Pi||Peer-to-peer video transmission||V2V (single-hop)||Wi-Fi||None|
|2013 ||Smartphones (Android)||Traffic event-based notifications||V2V (single-hop)||Wi-Fi||Authentication|
|2012 ||Smartphones (Android), Arduino||Traffic management||V2I (single-hop)||3G||None|
|2012 ||Smartphone (Android)||Periodic message exchange||V2V (multi-hop)||Wi-Fi Direct||None|
|2009 ||Laptops||Emergency unit warning messages||V2V, V2I (multi-hop)||Wi-Fi||Authentication|
|This work||Smartphones (Android)||Periodic message exchange||V2V (multi-hop)||Wi-Fi||Authentication, integrity|
|Field Name||Data Type||Size (bytes)|
|Feature/Device||Samsumg Galaxy Note 10.1||Samsumg Galaxy Grand Prime|
|System on Chip (SoC)||Exynos 4412||Snapdragon 410|
|CPU||Quad-core 1.4 GHz Cortex-A9||Quad-core 1.2 GHz Cortex-A53|
|Memory||2 GB RAM||1 GB RAM|
|Internal storage||64 GB||8 GB|
|Battery capacity||7000 mAh||2600 mAh|
|Android OS||Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0.3)||KitKat (4.4.4)|
|Wi-Fi||802.11 a/b/g/n, Wi-Fi Direct,||802.11 a/b/g/n, Wi-Fi Direct|
|Distance (m)||RTT (ms)||Packet Loss (%)|
|Security||GPS||Rx Ratio (%)||Gen. Load (bits)|
|GPS Provider||Security||Relay Selection Error (%)||Packet Loss A–B (%)||Packet Loss B–C (%)||Packet Loss C–A (%)|
|Sec. Level/Groups Size||Sym||Asym|
|Operations||Security Level (bits)|
|Parsing to bytes||0.65||0.53||0.52|
|Output to interface||0.53||0.51||0.54|
|Operations||Security Level (bits)|
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Galeana-Zapién, H.; Morales-Sandoval, M.; Leyva-Vázquez, C.A.; Rubio-Loyola, J. Smartphone-Based Platform for Secure Multi-Hop Message Dissemination in VANETs. Sensors 2020, 20, 330. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020330
Galeana-Zapién H, Morales-Sandoval M, Leyva-Vázquez CA, Rubio-Loyola J. Smartphone-Based Platform for Secure Multi-Hop Message Dissemination in VANETs. Sensors. 2020; 20(2):330. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020330Chicago/Turabian Style
Galeana-Zapién, Hiram, Miguel Morales-Sandoval, Carlos A. Leyva-Vázquez, and Javier Rubio-Loyola. 2020. "Smartphone-Based Platform for Secure Multi-Hop Message Dissemination in VANETs" Sensors 20, no. 2: 330. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020330