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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Smoke Contamination in Grapevine Berries and Taint in Wines Due to Bushfires Using a Low-Cost E-Nose and an Artificial Intelligence Approach

1
Digital Agriculture, Food and Wine Sciences Group, School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
2
School of Computing and Information Systems, Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
3
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
4
The Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
5
School of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5108; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185108
Received: 24 August 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
Bushfires are increasing in number and intensity due to climate change. A newly developed low-cost electronic nose (e-nose) was tested on wines made from grapevines exposed to smoke in field trials. E-nose readings were obtained from wines from five experimental treatments: (i) low-density smoke exposure (LS), (ii) high-density smoke exposure (HS), (iii) high-density smoke exposure with in-canopy misting (HSM), and two controls: (iv) control (C; no smoke treatment) and (v) control with in-canopy misting (CM; no smoke treatment). These e-nose readings were used as inputs for machine learning algorithms to obtain a classification model, with treatments as targets and seven neurons, with 97% accuracy in the classification of 300 samples into treatments as targets (Model 1). Models 2 to 4 used 10 neurons, with 20 glycoconjugates and 10 volatile phenols as targets, measured: in berries one hour after smoke (Model 2; R = 0.98; R2 = 0.95; b = 0.97); in berries at harvest (Model 3; R = 0.99; R2 = 0.97; b = 0.96); in wines (Model 4; R = 0.99; R2 = 0.98; b = 0.98). Model 5 was based on the intensity of 12 wine descriptors determined via a consumer sensory test (Model 5; R = 0.98; R2 = 0.96; b = 0.97). These models could be used by winemakers to assess near real-time smoke contamination levels and to implement amelioration strategies to minimize smoke taint in wines following bushfires. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; machine learning; electronic nose; smoke taint; wine sensory climate change; machine learning; electronic nose; smoke taint; wine sensory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fuentes, S.; Summerson, V.; Gonzalez Viejo, C.; Tongson, E.; Lipovetzky, N.; Wilkinson, K.L.; Szeto, C.; Unnithan, R.R. Assessment of Smoke Contamination in Grapevine Berries and Taint in Wines Due to Bushfires Using a Low-Cost E-Nose and an Artificial Intelligence Approach. Sensors 2020, 20, 5108. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185108

AMA Style

Fuentes S, Summerson V, Gonzalez Viejo C, Tongson E, Lipovetzky N, Wilkinson KL, Szeto C, Unnithan RR. Assessment of Smoke Contamination in Grapevine Berries and Taint in Wines Due to Bushfires Using a Low-Cost E-Nose and an Artificial Intelligence Approach. Sensors. 2020; 20(18):5108. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185108

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fuentes, Sigfredo; Summerson, Vasiliki; Gonzalez Viejo, Claudia; Tongson, Eden; Lipovetzky, Nir; Wilkinson, Kerry L.; Szeto, Colleen; Unnithan, Ranjith R. 2020. "Assessment of Smoke Contamination in Grapevine Berries and Taint in Wines Due to Bushfires Using a Low-Cost E-Nose and an Artificial Intelligence Approach" Sensors 20, no. 18: 5108. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185108

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