Spasticity, a common symptom in patients with upper motor neuron lesions, reduces the ability of a person to freely move their limbs by generating unwanted reflexes. Spasticity can interfere with rehabilitation programs and cause pain, muscle atrophy and musculoskeletal deformities. Despite its prevalence, it is not commonly understood. Widely used clinical scores are neither accurate nor reliable for spasticity assessment and follow up of treatments. Advancement of wearable sensors, signal processing and robotic platforms have enabled new developments and modeling approaches to better quantify spasticity. In this paper, we review quantitative modeling techniques that have been used for evaluating spasticity. These models generate objective measures to assess spasticity and use different approaches, such as purely mechanical modeling, musculoskeletal and neurological modeling, and threshold control-based modeling. We compare their advantages and limitations and discuss the recommendations for future studies. Finally, we discuss the focus on treatment and rehabilitation and the need for further investigation in those directions.
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