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Quantitative Modeling of Spasticity for Clinical Assessment, Treatment and Rehabilitation

by Yesung Cha 1 and Arash Arami 1,2,*
1
Neuromechanics and Assistive Robotics Laboratory, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5G 2A2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5046; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185046
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 5 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Worn Sensors and Related Applications)
Spasticity, a common symptom in patients with upper motor neuron lesions, reduces the ability of a person to freely move their limbs by generating unwanted reflexes. Spasticity can interfere with rehabilitation programs and cause pain, muscle atrophy and musculoskeletal deformities. Despite its prevalence, it is not commonly understood. Widely used clinical scores are neither accurate nor reliable for spasticity assessment and follow up of treatments. Advancement of wearable sensors, signal processing and robotic platforms have enabled new developments and modeling approaches to better quantify spasticity. In this paper, we review quantitative modeling techniques that have been used for evaluating spasticity. These models generate objective measures to assess spasticity and use different approaches, such as purely mechanical modeling, musculoskeletal and neurological modeling, and threshold control-based modeling. We compare their advantages and limitations and discuss the recommendations for future studies. Finally, we discuss the focus on treatment and rehabilitation and the need for further investigation in those directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: spasticity; spasticity modeling; wearable sensors; stretch reflex threshold; catch angle spasticity; spasticity modeling; wearable sensors; stretch reflex threshold; catch angle
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Cha, Y.; Arami, A. Quantitative Modeling of Spasticity for Clinical Assessment, Treatment and Rehabilitation. Sensors 2020, 20, 5046.

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