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Article

Comparison of 2.4 GHz WiFi FTM- and RSSI-Based Indoor Positioning Methods in Realistic Scenarios

1
Faculty of Computer Science and Business Information Systems, University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt, 97070 Würzburg, Germany
2
Institute of Medical Informatics, University of Lübeck, 23547 Lübeck, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4515; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164515
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Localization in Indoor Wireless Networks)
With the addition of the Fine Timing Measurement (FTM) protocol in IEEE 802.11-2016, a promising sensor for smartphone-based indoor positioning systems was introduced. FTM enables a Wi-Fi device to estimate the distance to a second device based on the propagation time of the signal. Recently, FTM has gotten more attention from the scientific community as more compatible devices become available. Due to the claimed robustness and accuracy, FTM is a promising addition to the often used Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). In this work, we evaluate FTM on the 2.4 GHz band with 20 MHz channel bandwidth in the context of realistic indoor positioning scenarios. For this purpose, we deploy a least-squares estimation method, a probabilistic positioning approach and a simplistic particle filter implementation. Each method is evaluated using FTM and RSSI separately to show the difference of the techniques. Our results show that, although FTM achieves smaller positioning errors compared to RSSI, its error behavior is similar to RSSI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an empirically optimized correction value for FTM is required to account for the environment. This correction value can reduce the positioning error significantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine timing measurement; received signal strength indication; Wi-Fi; position estimation; sensor fusion; smartphone; indoor positioning system; indoor localization; IEEE 802.11-2016 fine timing measurement; received signal strength indication; Wi-Fi; position estimation; sensor fusion; smartphone; indoor positioning system; indoor localization; IEEE 802.11-2016
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bullmann, M.; Fetzer, T.; Ebner, F.; Ebner, M.; Deinzer, F.; Grzegorzek, M. Comparison of 2.4 GHz WiFi FTM- and RSSI-Based Indoor Positioning Methods in Realistic Scenarios. Sensors 2020, 20, 4515. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164515

AMA Style

Bullmann M, Fetzer T, Ebner F, Ebner M, Deinzer F, Grzegorzek M. Comparison of 2.4 GHz WiFi FTM- and RSSI-Based Indoor Positioning Methods in Realistic Scenarios. Sensors. 2020; 20(16):4515. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164515

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bullmann, Markus, Toni Fetzer, Frank Ebner, Markus Ebner, Frank Deinzer, and Marcin Grzegorzek. 2020. "Comparison of 2.4 GHz WiFi FTM- and RSSI-Based Indoor Positioning Methods in Realistic Scenarios" Sensors 20, no. 16: 4515. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164515

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