The Use of IoT Technology in Smart Cities and Smart Villages: Similarities, Differences, and Future Prospects
- Following International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), United Nations (UN) and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, a list of standards and indicators directed at the digital innovation ecosystem of SCs have been singled out, proposing that they could be used within the digital innovation ecosystem of the Smart Village context as well;
- Similarities rather than disparities between both digital innovation ecosystems have been exemplified by the design of list of the IoT application domains with distinct service fields and use-cases, demonstrating that the use cases described in literature on SCs could be found within the digital innovation ecosystem of SVs too. The indicated list has been based on the inspection of numerous works/studies, with an aim to produce a conceptual roadmap that could provide us with the guidelines for conducting future research.
- Evaluating the role of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology in both digital innovation ecosystems;
- Providing a transdisciplinary study of the research topic in question due to its complexity, which demands sharing and creating knowledge from a variety of disciplines;
- Introducing a conceptual framework that will assure further research guidance and facilitate production of knowledge by interaction of different disciplines.
- Both digital innovation ecosystems have their own structural socio-economic features as well as geographical distinctions, which need to be taken into account when designing IoT solutions in both ecosystems.
- Same IoT technology can be used in both digital innovation ecosystems: digital innovation ecosystem of SCs and digital innovation ecosystem of SVs. In an IoT technology domain the use of IoT architecture components are application-specific alongside the acceptance that contributing factor for connectivity is based on a difference in topographical features between the two ecosystems.
3. Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Cities
3.1. Definition of the Concept of Digital Innovation Ecosystem
3.2. Contextualization, Taxonomy, and Smart Cities as Public Value
3.3. Public Value as the Proposed Conceptual Architecture of Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Cities
3.4. Co-Production as a Participation-Based Practice in Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Cities
4. Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Villages
Introduction of Place-Based and Context-based Approach and Possibilities for Co-Production as a Participation-Based Practice in Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Villages
5. From Internet of Things (IoT) Empowered Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Cities to IoT Empowered Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Villages
5.1. Overview of the IoT Technology Application in Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Cities
5.2. Overview of the IoT Technology Application in Digital Innovation Ecosystem of Smart Villages
5.3. IoT Technologies Domains
- Identification—Different identification methods provide a clear and unique identity for each important object within the IoT architecture. Identity management in the IoT environment needs to be able to distinguish devices, sensors, monitors and control their access to sensitive and non-sensitive data. We must distinguish between an object’s identity (e.g., EPC naming, uCode, MAC address of an interface controller) and its network address. Since we are discussing the Internet of Things, the most well-known addressing mechanism in function of the network is, for example, IPv4/6 .
- Sensing—Sensing is gathering any information (physical or digital) from connected objects and forwarding it to data warehouse, database, or cloud . Sensing is enabled by a vast extent of different sensors, for example: smart utilities meters, dust particles environment readings, CO2 sensors, sunlight, exposure and radiation sensors, hydrostatic pressure level sensors, automotive and traffic sensors, navigation and GPS services, security cameras, motion sensors, card readers and door access control, distinct agricultural, crop and livestock sensing, sensors related to health services, household device sensors, industry production process related sensors, various wearable sensors, actuators, and many more .
- Communication—The implementation of IoT-based smart cities infrastructure depends significantly on efficient short- and wide-range communication protocols to transport data between sensors, devices, aggregators, data storage and processing nodes. Examples of IoT supporting communication technologies entail RFID, NFC, UWB, Bluetooth, BLE, IEEE 802.15.4, Z-wave, WiFi, LTE (Long-Term Evolution based on GSM/UMTS mobile network technologies) with support for Narrow Band IoT capabilities (NB-IoT), LoRaWAN ,  as well as the emerging 5G (Fifth Generation) mobile technologies supporting massive machine-type communications (mMTC) .
- Computation—Processing hardware and software represent the “smart” in IoT. Although clever IoT architecture can address certain efficiency and coherence in logical processes, the dedicated computation devices are the “brain” of IoT. We can identify several types of equipment that support IoT: hardware nodes that run IoT applications (besides computers and smartphones also Arduino, Raspberry Pi, UDOO, FriendlyARM, Intel Galileo, Gadgeteer, BeagleBone, Cubieboard, Z1, WiSense, Mulle, T-Mote Sky...), software (e.g., smart city open source platforms as FIWARE, OCEAN, OM2M, Contiki, ODL IoTDM) , cloud (e.g., Hadoop), and other distributed data storage or fog, edge computing concepts .
- Services—Basically, IoT services can be classified as one of 4 types: identity-related, information aggregation, collaboration-aware, and ubiquitous services. Most rudimental, identity-related services enable the definition of real-world objects to the virtual representation inside IoT applications. Further information-aggregation collects and summarizes measurement equipment signals in IoT application. Collaborative-aware services complement obtained data through reactive decision mechanisms. Ubiquitous services are future promise of omnipresent, available anytime anywhere applications .
- Semantics—The ability for knowledge extraction with using resources, modeling data, analyzing, recognizing patterns, and presenting the information to make sense and provide with exact service . The heterogeneity of IoT elements is a challenge in terms of interoperability although there lies an opportunity in this ontology as, possibly dynamic IoT architecture, as a set of node properties, relations and interactions between them, define an interesting subject area, moreover newly discovered ontologies provide a basis for better problem solving .
5.4. Standards and Indicators in Digital Innovation Ecosystems of Smart Cities and Smart Villages
- Strategic standards and activities aim to support overall smart city strategies by identifying priorities, developing plan and enable effective monitoring and evaluating progress. These include:
- ISO 37120:2018 Sustainable cities and communities—Indicators for city services and quality of life  contains 104 indicators with test methods to measure performance management of city services and quality of life over time; transfer of results, allowing comparison across a wide range of performance measures and support of policy development and priority setting.
- ISO/DIS 37122:2018 Sustainable development in communities—Indicators for smart cities  with 85 indicators complements ISO 37120:2018 and establishes indicators with definitions and methodologies.
- ISO 37105:2019 Sustainable cities and communities—Descriptive framework for cities and communities  to support city and community stakeholders to define a common language to describe cities and communities and form an ontology for planning and implementing city, operating solutions that might include digital machine-readable information.
- ISO 37100:2016 Sustainable cities and communities—Vocabulary  defines terms relating to sustainable development in communities, smart community infrastructure and related subjects.
- ITU-T Y.4902/L.1602 key performance indicators related to the sustainability impacts of information and communication technology in smart sustainable cities  with 30 indicators describing topics such as environmental sustainability, productivity, quality of life, equity and social inclusion, physical infrastructure.
- ITU-T Y.4903/L.1603 key performance indicators for smart sustainable cities to assess the achievement of sustainable development goals  entail 52 indicators and construe economy, environment, society, and culture topics.
- Sustainable Development Goals 11+ monitoring framework  with 18 indicators aimed at achieving UN Sustainable Development Framework targets.
- Process standards and activities provide guidelines for managing smart city projects:
- ISO 37101:2016 Sustainable development in communities—Management system for sustainable development—Requirements with guidance for use .
- ITU-T Y.4901/L.1601 key performance indicators related to the use of information and communication technology in smart sustainable cities  has 48 indicators and describes the categories of environmental sustainability, productivity, quality of life, equity and social inclusion, physical infrastructure related to information and communication technologies.
- 2413-2019 IEEE Standard for an Architectural Framework for the Internet of Things (IoT)  conforms to previously defined standards to congregate IoT system’s stakeholders across multiple domains (transport, healthcare, Smart Grid, etc.).
- Technical specifications standards describe the solution implementation level:
- P2510 IEEE Standard for Establishing Quality of Data Sensor Parameters in the Internet of Things Environment  defines quality measures, controls, parameters and definitions for sensor data related to Internet of Things (IoT) implementations.
- P1451-99 IEEE Standard for Harmonization of Internet of Things (IoT) Devices and Systems  defines methods for data sharing, interoperability, and security of a network, where sensors and other devices interoperate.
- ETSI Technical specification 103 463 key performance indicators for sustainable digital multiservice cities  entails 76 indicators and describes different sustainability related themes such as people, planet, prosperity, governance.
5.5. A Proposal of a List of IoT Application Domains: Distinct Service Fields with Use-Cases
- Exemplified in Table 1, general similarities rather than disparities exist between both digital innovation ecosystems (technology, domains, and standards).
- As the study has shown that the same IoT (technology) can be used in both digital innovation ecosystems, the addressed question of potential differences in terms of the use of the IoT (technology) in both digital innovation ecosystems has to do more with sociopolitical and cultural dimensions than with technology itself, demonstrating that technology is far from being a neutral phenomenon.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Domain ||Smart Cities |
|Natural Resources and Energy||Smart Grids, Smart Public Lightning, Renewable Energy, Waste Management, Water Management, Food and Agriculture||[1,3,53,54]||Smart Weather and Irrigation, Smart and Precision Farming, Energy Access, Food Security, Micro Smart Grids||[55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66]|
|Transport and Mobility||City Logistics, Smart Mobility Information and Options, Parking Solutions||[1,3,54,65,66]||Smart Mobility||[65,67]|
|Smart Building||Facilities Management, Construction Services, Housing Quality||[1,3,53,68]||Smart Buildings|||
|Daily Life||Entertainment, Hospitality, Pollution Control, Public Security, E-health, Welfare and Social Inclusion, Management of Public Spaces||[1,3,9,57,69,70],||Smart Healthcare, Smart Surveillance System|||
|Government||E-governance, E-democracy, Transparency||[3,58,59]||Smart Elections|||
|Economy and Society||Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Cultural Heritage Management, Digital Education, Human Capital Management||[3,72,73]||Smart Education||[56,71]|
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Cvar, N.; Trilar, J.; Kos, A.; Volk, M.; Stojmenova Duh, E. The Use of IoT Technology in Smart Cities and Smart Villages: Similarities, Differences, and Future Prospects. Sensors 2020, 20, 3897. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143897
Cvar N, Trilar J, Kos A, Volk M, Stojmenova Duh E. The Use of IoT Technology in Smart Cities and Smart Villages: Similarities, Differences, and Future Prospects. Sensors. 2020; 20(14):3897. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143897Chicago/Turabian Style
Cvar, Nina, Jure Trilar, Andrej Kos, Mojca Volk, and Emilija Stojmenova Duh. 2020. "The Use of IoT Technology in Smart Cities and Smart Villages: Similarities, Differences, and Future Prospects" Sensors 20, no. 14: 3897. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20143897