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Open AccessArticle

The Potential of Adjusting Water Bolus Liquid Properties for Economic and Precise MR Thermometry Guided Radiofrequency Hyperthermia

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC—Cancer Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
EM4C&C Laboratory, Center for Care & Cure Technology Eindhoven (C3Te), Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102946
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
The potential of MR thermometry (MRT) fostered the development of MRI compatible radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia devices. Such device integration creates major technological challenges and a crucial point for image quality is the water bolus (WB). The WB is located between the patient body and external sources to both couple electromagnetic energy and to cool the patient skin. However, the WB causes MRT errors and unnecessarily large field of view. In this work, we studied making the WB MRI transparent by an optimal concentration of compounds capable of modifying T 2 * relaxation without an impact on the efficiency of RF heating. Three different T 2 * reducing compounds were investigated, namely CuSO 4 , MnCl 2 , and Fe 3 O 4 . First, electromagnetic properties and T 2 * relaxation rates at 1.5 T were measured. Next, through multi-physics simulations, the predicted effect on the RF-power deposition pattern was evaluated and MRT precision was experimentally assessed. Our results identified 5 mM Fe 3 O 4 solution as optimal since it does not alter the RF-power level needed and improved MRT precision from 0.39 ° C to 0.09 ° C. MnCl 2 showed a similar MRT improvement, but caused unacceptable RF-power losses. We conclude that adding Fe 3 O 4 has significant potential to improve RF hyperthermia treatment monitoring under MR guidance. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperthermia; MR thermometry; MRI guided interventions; dielectric properties; MRI properties; water bolus hyperthermia; MR thermometry; MRI guided interventions; dielectric properties; MRI properties; water bolus
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Sumser, K.; Bellizzi, G.G.; van Rhoon, G.C.; Paulides, M.M. The Potential of Adjusting Water Bolus Liquid Properties for Economic and Precise MR Thermometry Guided Radiofrequency Hyperthermia. Sensors 2020, 20, 2946.

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