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DeepLocate: Smartphone Based Indoor Localization with a Deep Neural Network Ensemble Classifier

1
Department of Information & Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk, Gyeongsan-si 38541, Korea
2
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 34129, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010133
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for Multi-Sensor Fusion)
A quickly growing location-based services area has led to increased demand for indoor positioning and localization. Undoubtedly, Wi-Fi fingerprint-based localization is one of the promising indoor localization techniques, yet the variation of received signal strength is a major problem for accurate localization. Magnetic field-based localization has emerged as a new player and proved a potential indoor localization technology. However, one of its major limitations is degradation in localization accuracy when various smartphones are used. The localization performance is different from various smartphones even with the same localization technique. This research leverages the use of a deep neural network-based ensemble classifier to perform indoor localization with heterogeneous devices. The chief aim is to devise an approach that can achieve a similar localization accuracy using various smartphones. Features extracted from magnetic data of Galaxy S8 are fed into neural networks (NNs) for training. The experiments are performed with Galaxy S8, LG G6, LG G7, and Galaxy A8 smartphones to investigate the impact of device dependence on localization accuracy. Results demonstrate that NNs can play a significant role in mitigating the impact of device heterogeneity and increasing indoor localization accuracy. The proposed approach is able to achieve a localization accuracy of 2.64 m at 50% on four different devices. The mean error is 2.23 m, 2.52 m, 2.59 m, and 2.78 m for Galaxy S8, LG G6, LG G7, and Galaxy A8, respectively. Experiments on a publicly available magnetic dataset of Sony Xperia M2 using the proposed approach show a mean error of 2.84 m with a standard deviation of 2.24 m, while the error at 50% is 2.33 m. Furthermore, the impact of devices on various attitudes on the localization accuracy is investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor localization; magnetic field; ensemble classifier; smartphone sensors; deep learning; feature extraction; neural networks indoor localization; magnetic field; ensemble classifier; smartphone sensors; deep learning; feature extraction; neural networks
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Ashraf, I.; Hur, S.; Park, S.; Park, Y. DeepLocate: Smartphone Based Indoor Localization with a Deep Neural Network Ensemble Classifier. Sensors 2020, 20, 133.

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