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Sensors 2019, 19(4), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040870

Compensation for Process and Temperature Dependency in a CMOS Image Sensor

1
EI Lab, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
2
Harvest Imaging, 3960 Bree, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced CMOS Image Sensors and Emerging Applications)
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Abstract

This paper analyzes and compensates for process and temperature dependency among a (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) CMOS image sensor (CIS) array. Both the analysis and compensation are supported with experimental results on the CIS’s dark current, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), and conversion gain (CG). To model and to compensate for process variations, process sensors based on pixel source follower (SF)’s transconductance gm,SF have been proposed to model and to be compared against the measurement results of SF gain ASF. In addition, ASF’s thermal dependency has been analyzed in detail. To provide thermal information required for temperature compensation, six scattered bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-based temperature sensors replace six image pixels inside the array. They are measured to have an untrimmed inaccuracy within ±0.5 °C. Dark signal and CG’s thermal dependencies are compensated using the on-chip temperature sensors by at least 79% and 87%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: temperature sensors; delta-sigma (Δ-σ) modulator; CMOS image sensor (CIS); thermal compensation; dark current; dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU); process variability; process variations; conversion gain (CG) temperature sensors; delta-sigma (Δ-σ) modulator; CMOS image sensor (CIS); thermal compensation; dark current; dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU); process variability; process variations; conversion gain (CG)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Xie, S.; Theuwissen, A. Compensation for Process and Temperature Dependency in a CMOS Image Sensor. Sensors 2019, 19, 870.

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