# Adaptive Filtering on GPS-Aided MEMS-IMU for Optimal Estimation of Ground Vehicle Trajectory

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Inertial Navigation Mechanism

## 3. Filtering

#### 3.1. Conventional Kalman Filter

#### 3.2. Adaptive Kalman Filtering

#### 3.2.1. Sage-Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter

#### 3.2.2. Strong Tracking Robust Kalman Filter

## 4. Proposed Scheme

#### Mathematical Model

## 5. Simulation, Data Collection and Results

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Parameter | Gyro | Accelerometer |
---|---|---|

Bias Repeatability | <0.02${}^{\circ}$/s, 1 $\sigma $ | <2 mg, 1 $\sigma $ |

Random Walk | <6${}^{\circ}$/hr${}^{1/2}$ | <0.3 m/s2/hr${}^{1/2}$ |

Scale Factor Stability | <0.3%, 1 $\sigma $ | <0.2%, 1 $\sigma $ |

Bias Variation | <0.1${}^{\circ}$/s, 1 $\sigma $ | <5 mg, 1 $\sigma $ |

Bandwidth | >100 Hz, Gain @ $-3$ dB | >100 Hz, Gain @ −3 dB |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ahmed, H.; Ullah, I.; Khan, U.; Qureshi, M.B.; Manzoor, S.; Muhammad, N.; Shahid Khan, M.U.; Nawaz, R.
Adaptive Filtering on GPS-Aided MEMS-IMU for Optimal Estimation of Ground Vehicle Trajectory. *Sensors* **2019**, *19*, 5357.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245357

**AMA Style**

Ahmed H, Ullah I, Khan U, Qureshi MB, Manzoor S, Muhammad N, Shahid Khan MU, Nawaz R.
Adaptive Filtering on GPS-Aided MEMS-IMU for Optimal Estimation of Ground Vehicle Trajectory. *Sensors*. 2019; 19(24):5357.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245357

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ahmed, Haseeb, Ihsan Ullah, Uzair Khan, Muhammad Bilal Qureshi, Sajjad Manzoor, Nazeer Muhammad, Muhammad Usman Shahid Khan, and Raheel Nawaz.
2019. "Adaptive Filtering on GPS-Aided MEMS-IMU for Optimal Estimation of Ground Vehicle Trajectory" *Sensors* 19, no. 24: 5357.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245357