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Open AccessArticle

Augmenting Clinical Outcome Measures of Gait and Balance with a Single Inertial Sensor in Age-Ranged Healthy Adults

1
Max Nader Lab for Rehabilitation Technologies and Outcomes Research, Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
2
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
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Department of BioMechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628CD Delft, The Netherlands
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Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
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Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors should be considered co-first authors.
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4537; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204537
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Gait and balance impairments are linked with reduced mobility and increased risk of falling. Wearable sensing technologies, such as inertial measurement units (IMUs), may augment clinical assessments by providing continuous, high-resolution data. This study tested and validated the utility of a single IMU to quantify gait and balance features during routine clinical outcome tests, and evaluated changes in sensor-derived measurements with age, sex, height, and weight. Age-ranged, healthy individuals (N = 49, 20–70 years) wore a lower back IMU during the 10 m walk test (10MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Spatiotemporal gait parameters computed from the sensor data were validated against gold standard measures, demonstrating excellent agreement for stance time, step time, gait velocity, and step count (intraclass correlation (ICC) > 0.90). There was good agreement for swing time (ICC = 0.78) and moderate agreement for step length (ICC = 0.68). A total of 184 features were calculated from the acceleration and angular velocity signals across these tests, 36 of which had significant correlations with age. This approach was also demonstrated for an individual with stroke, providing higher resolution information about balance, gait, and mobility than the clinical test scores alone. Leveraging mobility data from wireless, wearable sensors can help clinicians and patients more objectively pinpoint impairments, track progression, and set personalized goals during and after rehabilitation. View Full-Text
Keywords: wearable sensors; rehabilitation; gait events; gait impairment; postural sway; fall risk; Ten-Meter Walk Test; Berg Balance Scale; Timed Up and Go wearable sensors; rehabilitation; gait events; gait impairment; postural sway; fall risk; Ten-Meter Walk Test; Berg Balance Scale; Timed Up and Go
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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Brien, M.K.; Hidalgo-Araya, M.D.; Mummidisetty, C.K.; Vallery, H.; Ghaffari, R.; Rogers, J.A.; Lieber, R.; Jayaraman, A. Augmenting Clinical Outcome Measures of Gait and Balance with a Single Inertial Sensor in Age-Ranged Healthy Adults. Sensors 2019, 19, 4537. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204537

AMA Style

O’Brien MK, Hidalgo-Araya MD, Mummidisetty CK, Vallery H, Ghaffari R, Rogers JA, Lieber R, Jayaraman A. Augmenting Clinical Outcome Measures of Gait and Balance with a Single Inertial Sensor in Age-Ranged Healthy Adults. Sensors. 2019; 19(20):4537. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204537

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Brien, Megan K.; Hidalgo-Araya, Marco D.; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K.; Vallery, Heike; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John A.; Lieber, Richard; Jayaraman, Arun. 2019. "Augmenting Clinical Outcome Measures of Gait and Balance with a Single Inertial Sensor in Age-Ranged Healthy Adults" Sensors 19, no. 20: 4537. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204537

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