In this paper, we present a novel 2D–3D pedestrian tracker designed for applications in autonomous vehicles. The system operates on a tracking by detection principle and can track multiple pedestrians in complex urban traffic situations. By using a behavioral motion model and a non-parametric distribution as state model, we are able to accurately track unpredictable pedestrian motion in the presence of heavy occlusion. Tracking is performed independently, on the image and ground plane, in global, motion compensated coordinates. We employ Camera and LiDAR data fusion to solve the association problem where the optimal solution is found by matching 2D and 3D detections to tracks using a joint log-likelihood observation model. Each 2D–3D particle filter then updates their state from associated observations and a behavioral motion model. Each particle moves independently following the pedestrian motion parameters which we learned offline from an annotated training dataset. Temporal stability of the state variables is achieved by modeling each track as a Markov Decision Process with probabilistic state transition properties. A novel track management system then handles high level actions such as track creation, deletion and interaction. Using a probabilistic track score the track manager can cull false and ambiguous detections while updating tracks with detections from actual pedestrians. Our system is implemented on a GPU and exploits the massively parallelizable nature of particle filters. Due to the Markovian nature of our track representation, the system achieves real-time performance operating with a minimal memory footprint. Exhaustive and independent evaluation of our tracker was performed by the KITTI benchmark server, where it was tested against a wide variety of unknown pedestrian tracking situations. On this realistic benchmark, we outperform all published pedestrian trackers in a multitude of tracking metrics.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited