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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 241;

Handshake Sense Multiple Access Control for Cognitive Radio-Based IoT Networks

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
Department of Digital Convergence Business, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science & Software Engineering, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1276 KB, uploaded 10 January 2019]   |  


Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabling technologies such as ZigBee, WiFi, 6LowPAN, RFID, Machine-to-Machine, LTE-Advanced, etc. depend on the license-free Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands for the Internet. The proliferation of IoT devices is not only anticipated to create a huge amount of congestion in the near future, but even now the unlicensed spectrum is not enough in the ISM bands. Towards this end, Cognitive Radio (CR) technology can resolve the spectrum shortage issue since CR users can opportunistically exploit white spaces in licensed channels of the adjacent wireless systems. In CR networks, it is critical to coordinate spectrum access among Secondary Users (SUs) while protecting priority rights of Primary Users (PUs). Therein, SUs need to take good care of hidden PUs in order to avoid harmful interference. Further, a densely deployed CR network can compromise spectrum sensing quality and certainty of the results when a large number of SUs contends to access the same channel. Therefore, based on the vulnerable sensing results, SUs can cause interference to the PUs. In this paper, we first investigate the leading issues and then propose a novel Handshake Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (HSMA/CA) protocol for CR-based IoT networks. Our proposed HSMA/CA scheme resolves hidden primary terminal problem and maintains sufficient priority rights to PUs in a densely distributed network. In addition, we optimize the spectrum sensing period to maximize the system performance by maintaining peculiarities in the sensing operation like false alarm and misdetection. To evaluate the performance of HSMA/CA, we have analyzed the protocol through the Markov chain model in terms of throughput and verify its accuracy by simulations. Simulation results show that our scheme is suitable for non-collaborative densely deployed CR-based IoT networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: carrier sensing; CSMA/CA; dynamic spectrum access; IoT; spectrum sensing carrier sensing; CSMA/CA; dynamic spectrum access; IoT; spectrum sensing

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Shafiq, M.; Ahmad, M.; Khalil Afzal, M.; Ali, A.; Irshad, A.; Choi, J.-G. Handshake Sense Multiple Access Control for Cognitive Radio-Based IoT Networks. Sensors 2019, 19, 241.

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