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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020242

Data-Driven Based Approach to Aid Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis

1
Laboratory of Images, Signals and Intelligent Systems (LISSI), University of Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC), 122 rue Paul Armangot, 94400 Vitry-Sur-Seine, France
2
French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks (IFSTTAR), University of Paris-Est, COSYS, GRETTIA, F-77447 Marne la Vallée, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Abstract

This article presents a machine learning methodology for diagnosing Parkinson’s disease (PD) based on the use of vertical Ground Reaction Forces (vGRFs) data collected from the gait cycle. A classification engine assigns subjects to healthy or Parkinsonian classes. The diagnosis process involves four steps: data pre-processing, feature extraction and selection, data classification and performance evaluation. The selected features are used as inputs of each classifier. Feature selection is achieved through a wrapper approach established using the random forest algorithm. The proposed methodology uses both supervised classification methods including K-nearest neighbour (K-NN), decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), Naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machine (SVM) and unsupervised classification methods such as K-means and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, an online dataset collected within three different studies is used. This data set includes vGRF measurements collected from eight force sensors placed under each foot of the subjects. Ninety-three patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and 72 healthy subjects participated in the experiments. The obtained performances are compared with respect to various metrics including accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure. The classification performance evaluation is performed using the leave-one-out cross validation. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed methodology to accurately differentiate between PD subjects and healthy subjects. For the purpose of validation, the proposed methodology is also evaluated with an additional dataset including subjects with neurodegenerative diseases (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington’s disease (HD)). The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology to discriminate PD subjects from subjects with other neurodegenerative diseases with a relatively high accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson diseases; gait cycle; wearable sensors; vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs); features selection method; classification Parkinson diseases; gait cycle; wearable sensors; vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs); features selection method; classification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Khoury, N.; Attal, F.; Amirat, Y.; Oukhellou, L.; Mohammed, S. Data-Driven Based Approach to Aid Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis. Sensors 2019, 19, 242.

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