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Article

Optimal Number of Message Transmissions for Probabilistic Guarantee of Latency in the IoT

by *,† and *,†
Inria Research Center of Paris, 75012 Paris, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3970; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183970
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 14 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is now experiencing its first phase of industrialization. Industrial companies are completing proofs of concept and many of them plan to invest in automation, flexibility and quality of production in their plants. Their use of a wireless network is conditioned upon its ability to meet three Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), namely a maximum acceptable end-to-end latency L, a targeted end-to-end reliability R and a minimum network lifetime T. The IoT network has to guarantee that at least R % of messages generated by sensor nodes are delivered to the sink with a latency ≤L, whereas the network lifetime is at least equal to T. In this paper, we show how to provide the targeted end-to-end reliability R by means of retransmissions to cope with the unreliability of wireless links. We present two methods to compute the maximum number of transmissions per message required to achieve R. M F a i r is very easy to compute, whereas M O p t minimizes the total number of transmissions necessary for a message to reach the sink. M F a i r and M O p t are then integrated into a TSCH network with a load-based scheduler to evaluate the three KPIs on a generic data-gathering application. We first consider a toy example with eight nodes where the maximum number of transmissions M a x T r a n s is tuned per link and per flow. Finally, a network of 50 nodes, representative of real network deployments, is evaluated assuming M a x T r a n s is fixed. For both TSCH networks, we show that M O p t provides a better reliability and a longer lifetime than M F a i r , which provides a shorter average end-to-end latency. M O p t provides more predictable end-to-end performances than Kausa, a KPI-aware, state-of-the-art scheduler. View Full-Text
Keywords: IoT; industrial IoT; reliability; TSCH; latency; scheduling; network lifetime; IEEE802.15.4e; PDR; ETX; retransmission; probabilistic guarantee IoT; industrial IoT; reliability; TSCH; latency; scheduling; network lifetime; IEEE802.15.4e; PDR; ETX; retransmission; probabilistic guarantee
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MDPI and ACS Style

Minet, P.; Tanaka, Y. Optimal Number of Message Transmissions for Probabilistic Guarantee of Latency in the IoT. Sensors 2019, 19, 3970. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183970

AMA Style

Minet P, Tanaka Y. Optimal Number of Message Transmissions for Probabilistic Guarantee of Latency in the IoT. Sensors. 2019; 19(18):3970. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183970

Chicago/Turabian Style

Minet, Pascale, and Yasuyuki Tanaka. 2019. "Optimal Number of Message Transmissions for Probabilistic Guarantee of Latency in the IoT" Sensors 19, no. 18: 3970. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183970

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