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Open AccessArticle

A Smartphone-Based Whole-Cell Array Sensor for Detection of Antibiotics in Milk

Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
College of Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3882;
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
We present an integral smartphone-based whole-cell biosensor, LumiCellSense (LCS), which incorporates a 16-well biochip with an oxygen permeable coating, harboring bioluminescent Escherichia coli bioreporter cells, a macro lens, a lens barrel, a metal heater tray, and a temperature controller, enclosed in a light-impermeable case. The luminescence emitted by the bioreporter cells in response to the presence of the target chemicals is imaged by the phone’s camera, and a dedicated phone-embedded application, LCS_Logger, is employed to calculate photon emission intensity and plot it in real time on the device’s screen. An alert is automatically given when light intensity increases above the baseline, indicating the presence of the target. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system by the detection of residues of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP), in whole milk, with a detection threshold of 7.2 ng/mL. This value is below the allowed maximum as defined by European Union regulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; smartphone; food; biosensors; bioluminescence; milk; whole-cell biosensor antibiotics; smartphone; food; biosensors; bioluminescence; milk; whole-cell biosensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, M.-Y.; Kao, W.-C.; Belkin, S.; Cheng, J.-Y. A Smartphone-Based Whole-Cell Array Sensor for Detection of Antibiotics in Milk. Sensors 2019, 19, 3882.

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