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Catalyst State Diagnosis of Three-Way Catalytic Converters Using Different Resonance Parameters—A Microwave Cavity Perturbation Study

1
Bayreuth Engine Research Center (BERC), Department of Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
2
Ford Research and Innovation Center, Dearborn, MI 48124, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163559
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Recently, radio frequency (RF) technology was introduced as a tool to determine the oxygen storage level of a three-way catalyst (TWC) for gasoline vehicles. Previous studies on the investigation of commercial catalysts mostly use only the resonant frequency to describe the correlation of oxygen storage level and RF signal. For the first time this study presents a comparison under defined laboratory conditions considering both, resonance frequency and also the quality factor as measurands. Furthermore, various advantages over the sole use of the resonant frequency in the technical application are discussed. Experiments with Ø4.66’’ catalysts and Ø1.66’’ catalyst cores with alternating (rich/lean) gas compositions showed that the relative change in signal amplitude due to a change in oxygen storage is about 100 times higher for the inverse quality factor compared to the resonant frequency. In addition, the quality factor reacts more sensitively to the onset of the oxygen-storage ability, and delivers precise information about the necessary temperature, which is not possible when evaluating the resonant frequency due to the low signal amplitude. As investigations on aged catalysts confirm, the quality factor also provides a new approach to determine operando the ageing state of a TWC. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceria; oxygen storage capacity (OSC); three-way catalyst (TWC); exhaust gas aftertreatment; microwave cavity perturbation; radio frequency; gasoline engine; resonant frequency; quality factor; on-board diagnosis (OBD) ceria; oxygen storage capacity (OSC); three-way catalyst (TWC); exhaust gas aftertreatment; microwave cavity perturbation; radio frequency; gasoline engine; resonant frequency; quality factor; on-board diagnosis (OBD)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Steiner, C.; Malashchuk, V.; Kubinski, D.; Hagen, G.; Moos, R. Catalyst State Diagnosis of Three-Way Catalytic Converters Using Different Resonance Parameters—A Microwave Cavity Perturbation Study. Sensors 2019, 19, 3559.

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