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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2966; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092966

A Device-Independent Efficient Actigraphy Signal-Encoding System for Applications in Monitoring Daily Human Activities and Health

Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
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Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics and Applications of the Wearable Sensors in Healthcare)
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Abstract

Actigraphs for personalized health and fitness monitoring is a trending niche market and fit aptly in the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) paradigm. Conventionally, actigraphy is acquired and digitized using standard low pass filtering and quantization techniques. High sampling frequencies and quantization resolution of various actigraphs can lead to memory leakage and unwanted battery usage. Our systematic investigation on different types of actigraphy signals yields that lower levels of quantization are sufficient for acquiring and storing vital movement information while ensuring an increase in SNR, higher space savings, and in faster time. The objective of this study is to propose a low-level signal encoding method which could improve data acquisition and storage in actigraphs, as well as enhance signal clarity for pattern classification. To further verify this study, we have used a machine learning approach which suggests that signal encoding also improves pattern recognition accuracy. Our experiments indicate that signal encoding at the source results in an increase in SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) by at least 50–90%, coupled with a bit rate reduction by 50–80%, and an overall space savings in the range of 68–92%, depending on the type of actigraph and application used in our study. Consistent improvements by lowering the quantization factor also indicates that a 3-bit encoding of actigraphy data retains most prominent movement information, and also results in an increase of the pattern recognition accuracy by at least 10%. View Full-Text
Keywords: actigraphy; encoding; data compression; denoising; edge computing; signal processing; wearables; activity monitoring; machine learning actigraphy; encoding; data compression; denoising; edge computing; signal processing; wearables; activity monitoring; machine learning
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Athavale, Y.; Krishnan, S. A Device-Independent Efficient Actigraphy Signal-Encoding System for Applications in Monitoring Daily Human Activities and Health. Sensors 2018, 18, 2966.

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