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Open AccessArticle

An Efficient Scalable Scheduling MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

School of Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Lanarkshire G4 0BA, Glasgow, UK
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This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 2017 Ninth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN), Milan, Italy, 4–7 July 2017.
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092806
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensing, Communication, Networking and Systems)
Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) utilise acoustic waves with comparatively lower loss and longer range than those of electromagnetic waves. However, energy remains a challenging issue in addition to long latency, high bit error rate, and limited bandwidth. Thus, collision and retransmission should be efficiently handled at Medium Access Control (MAC) layer in order to reduce the energy cost and also to improve the throughput and fairness across the network. In this paper, we propose a new reservation-based distributed MAC protocol called ED-MAC, which employs a duty cycle mechanism to address the spatial-temporal uncertainty and the hidden node problem to effectively avoid collisions and retransmissions. ED-MAC is a conflict-free protocol, where each sensor schedules itself independently using local information. Hence, ED-MAC can guarantee conflict-free transmissions and receptions of data packets. Compared with other conflict-free MAC protocols, ED-MAC is distributed and more reliable, i.e., it schedules according to the priority of sensor nodes which based on their depth in the network. We then evaluate design choices and protocol performance through extensive simulation to study the load effects and network scalability in each protocol. The results show that ED-MAC outperforms the contention-based MAC protocols and achieves a significant improvement in terms of successful delivery ratio, throughput, energy consumption, and fairness under varying offered traffic and number of nodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater sensor networks; media access control; collision-free MAC protocols; duty cycle mechanism; depth-based scheduling underwater sensor networks; media access control; collision-free MAC protocols; duty cycle mechanism; depth-based scheduling
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Alfouzan, F.; Shahrabi, A.; Ghoreyshi, S.M.; Boutaleb, T. An Efficient Scalable Scheduling MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 2806.

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