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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies

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Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group, Solid State Electronics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
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Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal 76100, Malaysia
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Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
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Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf 32952, Egypt
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Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, 6229 HX Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092752
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Body Area Networks and Connected Health)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of ∼0.7 dB and ∼1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization
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Asan, N.B.; Hassan, E.; Velander, J.; Mohd Shah, S.R.; Noreland, D.; Blokhuis, T.J.; Wadbro, E.; Berggren, M.; Voigt, T.; Augustine, R. Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies. Sensors 2018, 18, 2752.

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