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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082563

Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 2: Experimentation

1
Center for Computer-Aided Design, College of Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Center for Computer-Aided Design, College of Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Human motion capture is driven by joint center location estimates, and error in their estimation can be compounded by subsequent kinematic calculations. Soft tissue artifact (STA), the motion of tissue relative to the underlying bones, is a primary cause of error in joint center calculations. A method for mitigating the effects of STA, single-frame optimization (SFO), was introduced and numerically verified in Part 1 of this work, and the purpose of this article (Part 2) is to experimentally compare the results of SFO with a marker-based solution. The experimentation herein employed a single-degree-of-freedom pendulum to simulate human joint motion, and the effects of STA were simulated by affixing the inertial measurement unit to the pendulum indirectly through raw, vacuum-sealed meat. The inertial sensor was outfitted with an optical marker adapter so that its location could be optically determined by a camera-based motion-capture system. During the motion, inertial effects and non-rigid attachment of the inertial sensor caused the simulated STA to manifest via unrestricted motion (six degrees of freedom) relative to the rigid pendulum. The redundant inertial and optical instrumentation allowed a time-varying joint center solution to be determined both by optical markers and by SFO, allowing for comparison. The experimental results suggest that SFO can achieve accuracy comparable to that of state-of-the-art joint center determination methods that use optical skin markers (root mean square error of 7.87–37.86 mm), and that the time variances of the SFO solutions are correlated (r =  0.58–0.99) with the true, time-varying joint center solutions. This suggests that SFO could potentially help to fill a gap in the existing literature by improving the characterization and mitigation of STA in human motion capture. View Full-Text
Keywords: motion capture; inertial sensors; optical markers; joint center; soft tissue artifact motion capture; inertial sensors; optical markers; joint center; soft tissue artifact
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Frick, E.; Rahmatalla, S. Joint Center Estimation Using Single-Frame Optimization: Part 2: Experimentation. Sensors 2018, 18, 2563.

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