In this paper, a novel 3D gaze estimation method for a wearable gaze tracking device is proposed. This method is based on the pupillary accommodation reflex of human vision. Firstly, a 3D gaze measurement model is built. By uniting the line-of-sight convergence point and the size of the pupil, this model can be used to measure the 3D Point-of-Regard in free space. Secondly, a gaze tracking device is described. By using four cameras and semi-transparent mirrors, the gaze tracking device can accurately extract the spatial coordinates of the pupil and eye corner of the human eye from images. Thirdly, a simple calibration process of the measuring system is proposed. This method can be sketched as follows: (1) each eye is imaged by a pair of binocular stereo cameras, and the setting of semi-transparent mirrors can support a better field of view; (2) the spatial coordinates of the pupil center and the inner corner of the eye in the images of the stereo cameras are extracted, and the pupil size is calculated with the features of the gaze estimation method; (3) the pupil size and the line-of-sight convergence point when watching the calibration target at different distances are computed, and the parameters of the gaze estimation model are determined. Fourthly, an algorithm for searching the line-of-sight convergence point is proposed, and the 3D Point-of-Regard is estimated by using the obtained line-of-sight measurement model. Three groups of experiments were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. This approach enables people to obtain the spatial coordinates of the Point-of-Regard in free space, which has great potential in the application of wearable devices.
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