Next Article in Journal
A Component Decomposition Model for 3D Laser Scanning Pavement Data Based on High-Pass Filtering and Sparse Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of User-Friendly Wearable Electronic Textiles for Healthcare Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Lagrange Programming Neural Network for TOA-Based Localization with Clock Asynchronization and Sensor Location Uncertainties
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mouthwitch: A Novel Head Mount Type Hands-Free Input Device that Uses the Movement of the Temple to Control a Camera
Open AccessArticle

A Novel Method for Estimating Free Space 3D Point-of-Regard Using Pupillary Reflex and Line-of-Sight Convergence Points

1
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, No. 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, China
2
MOEMS Education Ministry Key Laboratory, Tianjin University, No. 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072292
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Smart Devices)
In this paper, a novel 3D gaze estimation method for a wearable gaze tracking device is proposed. This method is based on the pupillary accommodation reflex of human vision. Firstly, a 3D gaze measurement model is built. By uniting the line-of-sight convergence point and the size of the pupil, this model can be used to measure the 3D Point-of-Regard in free space. Secondly, a gaze tracking device is described. By using four cameras and semi-transparent mirrors, the gaze tracking device can accurately extract the spatial coordinates of the pupil and eye corner of the human eye from images. Thirdly, a simple calibration process of the measuring system is proposed. This method can be sketched as follows: (1) each eye is imaged by a pair of binocular stereo cameras, and the setting of semi-transparent mirrors can support a better field of view; (2) the spatial coordinates of the pupil center and the inner corner of the eye in the images of the stereo cameras are extracted, and the pupil size is calculated with the features of the gaze estimation method; (3) the pupil size and the line-of-sight convergence point when watching the calibration target at different distances are computed, and the parameters of the gaze estimation model are determined. Fourthly, an algorithm for searching the line-of-sight convergence point is proposed, and the 3D Point-of-Regard is estimated by using the obtained line-of-sight measurement model. Three groups of experiments were conducted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. This approach enables people to obtain the spatial coordinates of the Point-of-Regard in free space, which has great potential in the application of wearable devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: eye tracking; 3D Point-of-Regard; pupillary reflex; head-mounted device eye tracking; 3D Point-of-Regard; pupillary reflex; head-mounted device
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wan, Z.; Wang, X.; Zhou, K.; Chen, X.; Wang, X. A Novel Method for Estimating Free Space 3D Point-of-Regard Using Pupillary Reflex and Line-of-Sight Convergence Points. Sensors 2018, 18, 2292.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop