Optical coupling between subwavelength grating pairs allows for the precise measurement of lateral or vertical displacement of grating elements and gives rise to different types of displacement and inertial sensors. In this paper, we demonstrate a design for a nano-optomechanical accelerometer based on a subwavelength grating pair that can be easily fabricated by a single Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip. The parameters of the subwavelength grating pair-based optical readout, including period, duty cycle, thickness of grating and metal film, and the distance of the air gap, were optimized by combining a genetic algorithm and rigorous coupled wavelength analysis (RCWA) to obtain the optimal sensitivity to the displacement of suspended grating element and the acceleration. A corresponding mechanical design was also completed to meet the highly sensitive acceleration measurement requirement while considering the mechanical cross-axis sensitivity, dynamic range, bandwidth, and fabrication feasibility. This device was verified by both RCWA and finite-different-time-domain methods, and a tolerance analysis was also completed to confirm that it is able to achieve the extremely high optical displacement sensitivity of 1.8%/nm, acceleration-displacement sensitivity of 1.56 nm/mg
, and acceleration measurement sensitivity of more than 2.5%/mg
, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than any reported counterparts. This work enables a single SOI-based high performance accelerometer, and provides a theoretical basis and fabrication guides for the design.
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