- freely available
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051527
- Overcome the current lack of either a legacy or a dominant solution to manage platooning applications with LTE/C-V2X and analyse the viability and performance of the dynamic scheduling  for V2X sidelink platoon communications. We consider two possible ways of implementing dynamic scheduling; both modes are not currently specified by 3GPP for C-V2X. With the first mode, called sequential, somehow reminiscent of TDMA solutions based on IEEE 802.11p—till now the only investigated access technology for platooning [6,7,8]—platoon vehicles ask the eNodeB for radio resources as soon as they receive a CAM from the preceding vehicle. The second mode, called simultaneous, allows all vehicles in the platoon to send their requests to the eNodeB soon after receiving the CAM from the leading vehicle, and supports simultaneous CAM transmissions between couples of vehicles, sufficiently spaced apart within the platoon, by using the same resource blocks.
- Derive theoretical bounds for the time required to disseminate CAM messages within a platoon, when varying the composition of the platoons, CAM size and network parameters, for the purpose of a preliminary comparison between the sequential and simultaneous transmission schemes.
- Carry out extensive simulations using SimuLTE , a system-level simulator based on OMNeT++  that accurately implements the whole LTE protocol stack, from the radio propagation dynamics and access technology to the application data pattern, which we extended so as to support the CAM exchange within a platoon and the proposed scheduling solutions. Results have been provided in a multi-platoon scenario under a wide range of settings. The impact of different scheduling schemes (sequential vs. simultaneous) and resource allocation policies (based on channel quality feedbacks; with and without frequency reuse) is evaluated in a stepwise manner to better understand how each parameter affects the reliability and latency performance of the CAM exchange within a platoon and in multiple platoons.
2. An Overview of Platooning
3. Cellular V2X: A Primer
V2V Communications: From LTE D2D to C-V2X
- Mode 3 (a.k.a. scheduled), according to which resource scheduling and interference management over the PC5 interface are assisted by eNodeBs via control signaling over the LTE-Uu interface.
- Mode 4 (a.k.a. autonomous), according to which V2V resource scheduling and interference management over the PC5 interface are supported based on distributed algorithms implemented between the vehicles.
4. Platooning in Cellular V2X
4.1. System Model
4.2. CAMs Exchange in the Platoon
- PL-to-PMs communications. Initially, a PL transmits a CAM to all the PMs.
- PM-to-PM communications. Once the CAM from the PL is received by the platoon, each PM transmits its own CAM to update the one just behind.
4.3. Mapping to C-V2X
4.3.1. PL-to-PMs Step
4.3.2. PM-to-PM Step
5. Theoretical Bounds
6. Performance Evaluation
6.1. Simulation Tool
6.2. Scenario Configuration
- Probability of successful reception of the PL-to-PM CAM against the distance from the PL. It is derived as the number of successfully received CAMs over the number of transmitted CAMs by the PL.
- Allocated RBs per TTI. It represents the number of RBs per TTI which are allocated to accommodate the transmission of CAMs of all platoon vehicles.
- CAM cycle completion time. It refers to the time required to accommodate all the CAM transmissions (PL to PMs and PM to PM) within a platoon at a given update cycle.
- Ratio of successfully completed CAM cycles. It is computed as the ratio between the number of CAM cycles for which all CAMs have been correctly delivered and the total number of CAM cycles.
6.4.1. PL-to-PM phase
6.4.2. PM-to-PM Phase
Conflicts of Interest
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|Platoon and road settings||Number of lanes||4|
|Road length||2 Km|
|Number of platoons (N)||varying|
|Platoon size (L)||random|
|Intra-platoon gap (d)||10 m|
|CAM size||300 Bytes|
|CAM update cycle (T)||100 ms|
|Network settings||Available bandwidth||10 MHz (50 RBs)|
|VUEs’ tx power||10 dBm|
|Resource allocation mode||Mode 3|
|Scheduling policy||Max C/I|
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