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Open AccessArticle

Naked-Eye Detection of Glucose in Saliva with Bienzymatic Paper-Based Sensor

Center for Research in Advanced Materials (CIMAV S.C.), Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Mexico
CIMAV S.C., Ejido Arroyo Seco, 34147 Durango, Mexico
CONACyT-CIMAV S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1071;
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
The high incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in low-income regions has promoted the development of low-cost alternatives to replace blood-based procedures. In this work, we present a bienzymatic paper-based sensor suitable for the naked-eye detection of glucose in saliva samples. The sensor was obtained by a stamping procedure and modified with chitosan to improve the colorimetric readout. The bienzymatic reaction of GOx-HRP coupled with 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxy benzoic acid was applied for the detection of glucose within a range from 0 to 180 mgdL−1 in buffer and artificial saliva solutions. The visual readout was perceived by the naked eye and registered with an office scanner to evaluate the analytical performance. The results showed a limit of detection of 0.37 mgdL−1 (S/N = 3) with an R.S.D. of 1.69% and a linear range from 1 to 22.5 mgdL−1 with an R2 of 0.99235. The analysis of human saliva samples was performed without pre-processing, achieving recoveries from 92 to 114%. The naked-eye detection was evaluated under two different light settings, showing average recoveries of 108.58 and 90.65% for standard and low illumination. The proposed device showed potential for easy-to-use, sensitive, low-cost, fast, and device-free detection of salivary glucose suitable for untrained personnel operation and limited facilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: paper-based sensor; saliva; naked-eye; glucose; low-cost paper-based sensor; saliva; naked-eye; glucose; low-cost
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Santana-Jiménez, L.A.; Márquez-Lucero, A.; Osuna, V.; Estrada-Moreno, I.; Dominguez, R.B. Naked-Eye Detection of Glucose in Saliva with Bienzymatic Paper-Based Sensor. Sensors 2018, 18, 1071.

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