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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 29;

Comparison between Scalp EEG and Behind-the-Ear EEG for Development of a Wearable Seizure Detection System for Patients with Focal Epilepsy

Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), STADIUS Center for Dynamical Systems, Signal Processing and Data Analytics, KU Leuven, Leuven 3001, Belgium
Imec, Leuven 3001, Belgium
Laboratory for Epilepsy Research, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium
Byteflies, Antwerp 2600, Belgium
UCB, Brussels 1070, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable and Ambient Sensors for Healthcare and Wellness Applications)
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A wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) device for continuous monitoring of patients suffering from epilepsy would provide valuable information for the management of the disease. Currently no EEG setup is small and unobtrusive enough to be used in daily life. Recording behind the ear could prove to be a solution to a wearable EEG setup. This article examines the feasibility of recording epileptic EEG from behind the ear. It is achieved by comparison with scalp EEG recordings. Traditional scalp EEG and behind-the-ear EEG were simultaneously acquired from 12 patients with temporal, parietal, or occipital lobe epilepsy. Behind-the-ear EEG consisted of cross-head channels and unilateral channels. The analysis on Electrooculography (EOG) artifacts resulting from eye blinking showed that EOG artifacts were absent on cross-head channels and had significantly small amplitudes on unilateral channels. Temporal waveform and frequency content during seizures from behind-the-ear EEG visually resembled that from scalp EEG. Further, coherence analysis confirmed that behind-the-ear EEG acquired meaningful epileptic discharges similarly to scalp EEG. Moreover, automatic seizure detection based on support vector machine (SVM) showed that comparable seizure detection performance can be achieved using these two recordings. With scalp EEG, detection had a median sensitivity of 100% and a false detection rate of 1.14 per hour, while, with behind-the-ear EEG, it had a median sensitivity of 94.5% and a false detection rate of 0.52 per hour. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of detecting seizures from EEG recordings behind the ear for patients with focal epilepsy. View Full-Text
Keywords: seizure detection; epilepsy; EEG; EOG; wearable sensor; SVM seizure detection; epilepsy; EEG; EOG; wearable sensor; SVM

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Gu, Y.; Cleeren, E.; Dan, J.; Claes, K.; Van Paesschen, W.; Van Huffel, S.; Hunyadi, B. Comparison between Scalp EEG and Behind-the-Ear EEG for Development of a Wearable Seizure Detection System for Patients with Focal Epilepsy. Sensors 2018, 18, 29.

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