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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1302;

An Approach to Speed up Single-Frequency PPP Convergence with Quad-Constellation GNSS and GIM

School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
School of Surveying and Urban Spatial Information, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Allison Kealy, Günther Retscher and Gert F. Trommer
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors for Positioning and Navigation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2968 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  


The single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) technique has attracted increasing attention due to its high accuracy and low cost. However, a very long convergence time, normally a few hours, is required in order to achieve a positioning accuracy level of a few centimeters. In this study, an approach is proposed to accelerate the single-frequency PPP convergence by combining quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and global ionospheric map (GIM) data. In this proposed approach, the GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo observations are directly used in an uncombined observation model and as a result the ionospheric and hardware delay (IHD) can be estimated together as a single unknown parameter. The IHD values acquired from the GIM product and the multi-GNSS differential code bias (DCB) product are then utilized as pseudo-observables of the IHD parameter in the observation model. A time varying weight scheme has also been proposed for the pseudo-observables to gradually decrease its contribution to the position solutions during the convergence period. To evaluate the proposed approach, datasets from twelve Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days are processed and analyzed. The numerical results indicate that the single-frequency PPP with quad-constellation GNSS and GIM data are able to reduce the convergence time by 56%, 47%, 41% in the east, north, and up directions compared to the GPS-only single-frequency PPP. View Full-Text
Keywords: precise point positioning; single-frequency; convergence; GNSS precise point positioning; single-frequency; convergence; GNSS

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Cai, C.; Gong, Y.; Gao, Y.; Kuang, C. An Approach to Speed up Single-Frequency PPP Convergence with Quad-Constellation GNSS and GIM. Sensors 2017, 17, 1302.

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